69 terms

"Skeletal System" - Chapter 5: The Skeletal System_SJA

Flash cards based off of the power point slides downloaded in the file "Skeletal System" as well as the notes written down for the class periods discussing the chapter.
STUDY
PLAY
Bone
One of the four parts of the skeletal system. Responsible for supporting the body, protecting soft organs, providing a place for skeletal muscles to attach, storing minerals and fats, and providing a place for blood cell formation. (206 bones present)
Compact bone
One of the two types of bone tissue. Hard material covering the outside of bones.
Spongy Bone
Small needle-like pieces of bone. Contains many open spaces.
Long Bone
A type of bone shape classification. They are long in shape and consist of bones such as the femor and the humerus. (A in picture)
Flat Bones
A type of bone shape classification. They are strong, flat plates of bone providing protection to many organs of the body. The scapular and parietal bone of the skull are all flat bones.(C in picture)
Short Bones
A type of bone shape classification. They are as long as they are wide. They provide support and stability, and therefore do not move.
Irregular Bones
A type of bone shape classification. They are all bones which do not fit into any category.
Diaphysis
The shaft of the bone which is composed of compact bone.
Epiphysis
Composed mostly of spongy bone, ends at epiphyseal line.
Periosteum
A dense connective tissue wrapping, also how blood vessels get in.
Medulla (Medulla cavity)
Center cavity of the bone.
Red Bone Marrow
Bone marrow which is involved in the active development of blood cells.
Yellow Bone Marrow
Bone marrow which is high in fat/adipose tissue.
Endosteum
Similar to periosteum, it is a sense connective tissue fiber deeper than the periosteum. (endo= inside)
Sharpey's Fibers
Fibers which secure periosteum to underlying bone.
Arteries
Supply bone cells with nutrients and take calcium away to muscles and nerves.
Surface features of bones are used as....
Sites for attachments of muscles, tendons, and ligaments.
Projection or Process
Bone growth out from the bone surface. For example, bone that "sticks out" (crest, tuberosity, tubercle, spine, trochanter)
Depression or Cavity
Indentations in bones. (fossa, groove, fissure, foramen)
Osteon
A unit of bone.
Central (Haversian) Canal
An opening in the center of an osteon which carries blood vessels and nerves.
Perforating (Volkmann's) Canal
Canal perpendicular to the central canal, it carries blood vessels and nerves.
Lamellae
Layers of bone within an osteon.
Matrix
The intercellular material in which the cells and fibers of connective tissue are embedded.
Sharpey's Fibers
Fibers which secure periosteum to underlying bone.
Osteocytes
Mature bone cells.
Osteoblasts
Bone forming cells.
Osteoclasts
Bone-destroying cells. They break down the bone matrix for remodeling and the release of calcium.
Bone Remodeling
A continual process accomplished through osteoblasts and osteoclasts. It is regulated by weight bearing exercise and parathyroid hormone.
Embryo Skeleten
A skeletan primarily composed of hyaline cartilage which is then replaced by bone. (cartilage remains in bridge of nose, parts of ribs, and joints)
Epiphyseal Plates
Plates which allow for growth of long bone during childhood.
Chondrocytes
Cells which continuously form cartilage.
Ossify
To turn into bone or bony tissue. Older cartilage is broken down by osteoclasts and replaced with bone.
Closed (simple) Fracture
A bone break that does not penetrate the skin
Open (compound) Fracture
A bone break which penetrates through the skin
Comminuted Fracture
Bone shatters into mallible pieces
Compression Fracture
A bone fracture which usually happens in vertebra. Bone is crushed or collapses.
Impacted Fracture
Bone fragments drive into each other.
Spiral Fracture
A fracture caused by a twisting force. One end of the bone extremity remains planted while the other is in motion.
Greenstick
A bone fracture in which the bone bends and partially breaks. Seen mostly in children who still have cartilaginous skeletons.
Hematoma Formation
The first stage in the healing a bone structure. (The inflammation stage)
Hematoma
A mass of clotted blood that forms in an organ, tissue, or body space.
Fibrocartilage Callus Formation
The second stage of bone healing. (The soft callus phase)
Fibrocartilage Callus
A temporary formation of fibroblasts and chondroblasts.
Bony Callus Formation
The third stage of bone healing. (the hard callus phase)
Bony Callus
A collection of woven bony tissue which will eventually form into bone.
Bone Remodeling
The final stage of the bone healing process. Over time bone is remodeled by osteoclasts and osteoblasts.
Axial Skeleton
A group of bones that consist on the central axis of the organism.
Appendicular Skeleton
Consists of the bones associated with appendages
Paranasal Sinuses
A group of sinuses which lighten the skull and give resonance and amplification to the voice.
Frontal Sinus
Mucosa lined air spaces located above the eye brows.
The Bone Thorax
Name for three structures within the thoracic area: sternum, ribs, thoracic vertebrea.
Fontanelles
Fibrous membranes which connect the cranial bones and allow brain growth. They turn to bone within 24 months after birth.
Cervical Spine
The top most vertebrae of the spin which is referred to as C1 - C7 (Numbers are subscripted)
Thoracic spine.
The second lowest grouping of vertebrae of the spine. Referred to as T1-T12
Lumbar Spine
The third lowest grouping of vertebrae in the spine. Referred to as L1-L5.
Sacrum Spine
The fourth lowest grouping of vertebrae in the spine. These consist of 5 fused vertebrae.
Coccyx Spine
The lowest grouping of vertebrae in the spine. Also known as the tail bone. It consists of 4 fused vertebrae.
Ligaments
Connective tissue which attaches bones together.
Tendons
Connective tissue which connects muscle to bone.
Acromion of the Scapula
Contains a ligament connecting the joint.
Articular (hyaline) Cartilage
One of the four forms of cartilage. It is responsible for decreasing friction and distributes load.
Squamous Suture (Skull)
side vertical, separates parietal from temporal
sagittal suture of the skull
between parietal bones
Lambdoidal Suture (Skull)
Separates parietals from occipital
Sternum
manubrium, body, xiphoid process (aka breastbone)
appositional growth
growth in width
transverse fracture
occurs straight across the bone
oblique fracture
occurs at an angle across the bone
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...