"Skeletal System" - Chapter 5: The Skeletal System_SJA
Flash cards based off of the power point slides downloaded in the file "Skeletal System" as well as the notes written down for the class periods discussing the chapter.
Terms in this set (69)
One of the four parts of the skeletal system. Responsible for supporting the body, protecting soft organs, providing a place for skeletal muscles to attach, storing minerals and fats, and providing a place for blood cell formation. (206 bones present)
One of the two types of bone tissue. Hard material covering the outside of bones.
Small needle-like pieces of bone. Contains many open spaces.
A type of bone shape classification. They are long in shape and consist of bones such as the femor and the humerus. (A in picture)
A type of bone shape classification. They are strong, flat plates of bone providing protection to many organs of the body. The scapular and parietal bone of the skull are all flat bones.(C in picture)
A type of bone shape classification. They are as long as they are wide. They provide support and stability, and therefore do not move.
A type of bone shape classification. They are all bones which do not fit into any category.
The shaft of the bone which is composed of compact bone.
Composed mostly of spongy bone, ends at epiphyseal line.
A dense connective tissue wrapping, also how blood vessels get in.
Medulla (Medulla cavity)
Center cavity of the bone.
Red Bone Marrow
Bone marrow which is involved in the active development of blood cells.
Yellow Bone Marrow
Bone marrow which is high in fat/adipose tissue.
Similar to periosteum, it is a sense connective tissue fiber deeper than the periosteum. (endo= inside)
Fibers which secure periosteum to underlying bone.
Supply bone cells with nutrients and take calcium away to muscles and nerves.
Surface features of bones are used as....
Sites for attachments of muscles, tendons, and ligaments.
Projection or Process
Bone growth out from the bone surface. For example, bone that "sticks out" (crest, tuberosity, tubercle, spine, trochanter)
Depression or Cavity
Indentations in bones. (fossa, groove, fissure, foramen)
A unit of bone.
Central (Haversian) Canal
An opening in the center of an osteon which carries blood vessels and nerves.
Perforating (Volkmann's) Canal
Canal perpendicular to the central canal, it carries blood vessels and nerves.
Layers of bone within an osteon.
The intercellular material in which the cells and fibers of connective tissue are embedded.
Fibers which secure periosteum to underlying bone.
Mature bone cells.
Bone forming cells.
Bone-destroying cells. They break down the bone matrix for remodeling and the release of calcium.
A continual process accomplished through osteoblasts and osteoclasts. It is regulated by weight bearing exercise and parathyroid hormone.
A skeletan primarily composed of hyaline cartilage which is then replaced by bone. (cartilage remains in bridge of nose, parts of ribs, and joints)
Plates which allow for growth of long bone during childhood.
Cells which continuously form cartilage.
To turn into bone or bony tissue. Older cartilage is broken down by osteoclasts and replaced with bone.
Closed (simple) Fracture
A bone break that does not penetrate the skin
Open (compound) Fracture
A bone break which penetrates through the skin
Bone shatters into mallible pieces
A bone fracture which usually happens in vertebra. Bone is crushed or collapses.
Bone fragments drive into each other.
A fracture caused by a twisting force. One end of the bone extremity remains planted while the other is in motion.
A bone fracture in which the bone bends and partially breaks. Seen mostly in children who still have cartilaginous skeletons.
The first stage in the healing a bone structure. (The inflammation stage)
A mass of clotted blood that forms in an organ, tissue, or body space.
Fibrocartilage Callus Formation
The second stage of bone healing. (The soft callus phase)
A temporary formation of fibroblasts and chondroblasts.
Bony Callus Formation
The third stage of bone healing. (the hard callus phase)
A collection of woven bony tissue which will eventually form into bone.
The final stage of the bone healing process. Over time bone is remodeled by osteoclasts and osteoblasts.
A group of bones that consist on the central axis of the organism.
Consists of the bones associated with appendages
A group of sinuses which lighten the skull and give resonance and amplification to the voice.
Mucosa lined air spaces located above the eye brows.
The Bone Thorax
Name for three structures within the thoracic area: sternum, ribs, thoracic vertebrea.
Fibrous membranes which connect the cranial bones and allow brain growth. They turn to bone within 24 months after birth.
The top most vertebrae of the spin which is referred to as C1 - C7 (Numbers are subscripted)
The second lowest grouping of vertebrae of the spine. Referred to as T1-T12
The third lowest grouping of vertebrae in the spine. Referred to as L1-L5.
The fourth lowest grouping of vertebrae in the spine. These consist of 5 fused vertebrae.
The lowest grouping of vertebrae in the spine. Also known as the tail bone. It consists of 4 fused vertebrae.
Connective tissue which attaches bones together.
Connective tissue which connects muscle to bone.
Acromion of the Scapula
Contains a ligament connecting the joint.
Articular (hyaline) Cartilage
One of the four forms of cartilage. It is responsible for decreasing friction and distributes load.
Squamous Suture (Skull)
side vertical, separates parietal from temporal
sagittal suture of the skull
between parietal bones
Lambdoidal Suture (Skull)
Separates parietals from occipital
manubrium, body, xiphoid process (aka breastbone)
growth in width
occurs straight across the bone
occurs at an angle across the bone
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