19 terms

Beekeeping

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Bee Populations + Responsibilities (3)
Immature: eggs, larvae, pupae i.e. the brood
Hive: nurse, cleaner, wax builder, honey & pollen processors, undertakers, guards
Field: forage for pollen, nectar, water, propolis
Races - Apis Mellifera
Italian: most popular, produce a lot of honey, gentle, good hygiene, overproduce brood, build burr comb, bright yellow queen
Carniolan: popular, gentle, resistant to brood diseases, fly far for food, propensity to swarm, dark queen
German Black: defensive, better in cold climates (not America)
Africanized: defensive, aggressive, abscond, swarm often
Caucasian: produce propolis to seal up hive
Honey Production
Worker bees forage for nectar. Nectar is deposited in cells to be ripened into honey and then capped for storage.
propolis
resin collected from buds of trees mixed with beeswax used to attach combs, seal cracks and crevices in hive, and varnish hive interior
nectar
foraged by bees, ripened into honey
pollen
collected from flowers, mixed with nectar and stored in cells (bee bread), separates brood from honey
bee hive frame gaps
holds comb 3/8 in apart
Castes
Queen: diploid (fertilized egg), female, egg to emergence 16 days
Worker: diploid, female, egg to emergence 21 days
Drones
not a caste, haploid (unfertilized egg), mates with a queen then dies, egg too emergence 24 days, no stinger
Diet
All larvae: royal jelly for first 3 days of life
Worker: worker jelly 4th day on, incremental provisioning feeding
Queen: exclusively fed royal jelly to develop ovaries, mass provisioning feeding
Insect Development
egg
larvae
pupae
adult
ocelli
3 simple eyes, sense light and polarization for orientation (see UV)
thorax
locomotion center, set of legs on each of 3 segments
abdomen
processing, turn honey into wax
hamili hook
holds forewing and hindwing together to act as one big wing
tongue
has palps to act as taste buds
antenna
sense of smell, helps with orientation
antennae cleaner
used to brush of pollen, legs then push pollen to hind leg to pollen press
crop
honey basket inside abdomen, nectar collected inside, expands to hold nectar