20 terms

Chapter 10 - Islam and the Muslim World

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Kaaba
Ancient cube-like shrine in Mecca.
Allah
God in Arabic
Muhammad
He was a prophet who Angel Gabriel told was a messenger of Allah.
Islam
In Arabic, it means "submission to the will of Allah".
Muslim
In Arabic, it means "one who has submitted."
Qur'an
Holy book of Muslims
Hijrah
Muhammad's migration from Mecca in 622 AD to Yathrib (later named Medina).
Five Pillars
To be a Muslim, all believers have to carry out these five duties: Faith, Prayer, Alms, Fasting, Pilgrimage.
mosque
an Islamic house of worship
Hajj
All Muslims who are physically and financially able to perform this pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in their lifetime. Pilgrims wear identical garments so that all stand as equals before Allah.
Dome of the Rock
Located in Jerusalem, it is an Islamic monument and holy place. It is situated on the spot which Muslims say Muhammad ascended to heaven to learn of Allah's will. With Allah's blessing, he returned to earth to bring God's message to all people. Jews identify the same rock as the site where Abraham was prepared to sacrifice his son Isaac.
Sunna
Muhammad's example that is meant to be a model for proper living.
Shari'a
Body of law that includes the Qur'an and Sunna.
caliph (kay-lihf)
title that means "successor" or "deputy"
Rightly Guided Caliphs
The rule (caliphate) of four individuals over the Muslim community after the death of Muhammad. They include Abu-Bakr, Umar, Uthman and Ali.
jihad
means "striving" and can refer to the inner struggle against evil.
Shi'a
division within Muslims who believe all Muslim rulers should be a descendant of Muhammad. Members are called Shi'ites.
Sunni
division within Muslims who believe all Muslim rulers should follow the (Sunna) example of Muhammad.
calligraphy
the art of beautiful handwriting
House of Wisdom
In the early 800s, this center for translation, library, and academy opened in Baghdad so that scholars of different beliefs and cultures could translate texts from Greece, India, Persia and elsewhere into Arabic.
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