FINAL The Essential World History WOH2012 History of World Civilizations to 1789
By what name is Temüjin better known? A) Khubilai Khan B) Tamerlane C) Ögödei D) Tang Taizong E) Genghis Khan
E) Genghis Khan
During the Song Dynasty, over half of government office appointments went to men who had passed a series of examinations on A) Buddhist sutras. B) Confucian texts and philosophy. C) Sun-tzu's military treatise, the Art of War. D) cosmology. E) Tang legal codes.
B) Confucian texts and philosophy.
Neo-Confucianism A) was greatly aided in its intellectual development by Wu Zhao. B) under Zhu Xi, divided the world into a material world and a transcendent world. C) maintained that the world is illusory unless one possesses a rare variety of karma. D) was a translation of the Master's works into Japanese. E) succumbed to a revived Buddhism.
B) under Zhu Xi, divided the world into a material world and a transcendent world.
In the Chinese civil service examination system A) candidates from southern China always received the highest positions. B) the system entirely eliminated aristocratic influence in the government bureaucracy. C) the Song severely restricted the eligibility for taking the exams. D) many candidates who passed the first examination did not go on to a higher level. E) very few of the successful candidates came from the landed gentry.
D) many candidates who passed the first examination did not go on to a higher level.
Buddhism was brought to China by A) gurus from Angkor. B) barbarian invasions. C) travelers from Indonesia. D) Chinese fleets returning from the West. E) merchants from India.
E) merchants from India.
The Grand Canal linked what? A) The Yellow River to the Yellow Sea B) China to Japan C) The Yellow and Yangzi Rivers D) China to Mongolia E) China to western Europe
C) The Yellow and Yangzi Rivers
In the 1400s, after the Ming admiral Zhenghe had successfully led several large sailing expeditions to the coast of Africa and throughout Southeast Asia, the voyages were discontinued and were never revived. A) True B) False
The nomadic people who aligned with the Tang to dominate much of the carrying trade along the Silk Road were the A) Mongols. B) Uzbeks. C) Uighurs. D) Jurchens. E) Berbers.
The name given to the Asian region northwest of traditional China that was pacified by the Tang was A) Xinjiang. B) Korea. C) Japan. D) Silla. E) Bactria.
By the Tang and Song eras, the gentry had replaced the aristocracy as the political and economic elite of Chinese society. A) True B) False
The founder of the Mongol Empire was A) Ogilvai Khan. B) Khubilai Khan. C) Atta Khan. D) Genghis Khan. E) Tamerlane.
D) Genghis Khan.
The Mongols A) were, under Genghis Khan, aggressive traders virtually obsessed with making profits. B) ruled China, by means of the Yuan Dynasty, for four hundred and thirty-seven years. C) established their capital in China at Nanjing. D) destroyed the Chinese economy by outlawing all trade. E) made use of Chinese institutions in governing China.
E) made use of Chinese institutions in governing China
After the third century C.E. collapse of the Han dynasty, China fell into a long period of division and civil war. A) True B) False
Although the Sui dynasty ruled only a short time, its successes included the construction of the Grand Canal, linking the Yangtze and the Yellow rivers. A) True B) False
The Grand Canal, which linked the T'ang capital to the coastal towns of the south, allowed the T'ang to shift their government farther to the east. A) True B) False
Cave murals in the oasis town of Dunhuang reveal that what religion was migrating west along the Silk Road? A) Islam B) Buddhism C) Shinto D) Confucianism E) Christianity
The Uighur's writing system, which was imitated and utilized by many cultures, was based on a system of written characters unique to the Uighur. A) True B) False
Empress Wu A) made a significant contribution to the civil service examination system. B) achieved nothing positive during her rule. C) deposed her courtiers at the age of 80 and went on to rule another eight years. D) found a rationalization for her rule in a Daoist sutra. E) was assassinated on her fortieth birthday.
A) made a significant contribution to the civil service examination system.
During the Song era, Chinese painting was primarily inspired by Confucianism. A) True B) False
Wu Zhao A) was the founder of the White Lotus sect. B) translated The Way of the Dao into Khitan. C) was the Chinese name of Marco Polo. D) was the founder of the Ming Dynasty. E) became empress of China.
E) became empress of China.
Early Japanese worshipped spirits called kami. A) True B) False
Japanese haiku A) often focused on images from nature. B) usually concerned itself with the fortunes of war. C) was the product of a single author who produced very brief poetic descriptions. D) was totally rejected in Japan after the fourteenth century. E) reflected the samurai love of war and violence.
A) often focused on images from nature.
The Koryo dynasty arose in northern Korea in the tenth century, and retained power for four hundred years. A) True B) False
The new class of Japanese military officials and retainers whose purpose was to protect their patrons and their property was the A) Bushido. B) shogun. C) samurai. D) kamikaze. E) seppuku.
The Fujiwara period in Japan began the tradition of A) women ruling Japan. B) samurai ruling Japan. C) emperors not having any political power. D) China ruling Japan. E) Shoguns ruling Japan.
C) emperors not having any political power.
The samurai A) were a hereditary warrior class in medieval Japan recruited in Manchuria and Siberia. B) were similar medieval European knights. C) were the oath-pledged military retainers of the shogun, constituting a formal national army. D) took oaths of poverty, chastity and obedience before their formal investiture. E) were recruited from the peasant class.
C) were the oath-pledged military retainers of the shogun, constituting a formal national army.
The most important code taken by the samurai was their oath of loyalty to A) their personal lord. B) the emperor. C) the shogun. D) their own interests. E) their wives.
A) their personal lord.
The so-called "seventeen-article constitution" involved A) a decentralization of Japanese government by Shotoku Taishi. B) an effort to enable the Japanese to conquer the Tang Dynasty of China. C) the formal establishment of feudalism. D) a last-ditch effort to keep peasants under Buddhist control. E) a centralized government under a supreme ruler and a merit system.
E) a centralized government under a supreme ruler and a merit system.
The Yi Dynasty allied itself with A) the Mongols. B) the Ming. C) the Koryo. D) Japan. E) Muslim scholars.
B) the Ming.
The Mongols A) were unsuccessful in two attempts to capture Japan. B) forced thousands of Koreans to perform forced labor. C) were driven out of Vietnam by Vietnamese guerrillas. D) both a and b E) a, b, and c
E) a, b, and c
The Japanese moon god was Amaterasu. A) True B) False
The Three Kingdoms of early Korea were A) Xinjang, Silla, and Jurchen. B) Paekche, Silla, and Koguryo. C) Sakhalin, Koryo, and Tientsin. D) Pyongyang, Yalu, and Annam. E) Seoul, Koguryo, and Champa.
B) Paekche, Silla, and Koguryo.
Shinto A) is the Japanese version of Theravada Buddhism. B) involves the performance of ritual acts, usually performed at a shrine. C) stresses military violence and gore. D) includes aspects involving belief in the humanity of the emperor. E) was heavily influence by Southeast Asian Hinduism.
B) involves the performance of ritual acts, usually performed at a shrine.
One of the reasons the kingdom of Silla was able to dominate over the other two Korean kingdoms of Paekche and Koguryo was that A) Silla was the oldest of the three kingdoms. B) Silla was in contact with the Nara/Heian states of Japan. C) Koguryo invaded Paekche, leaving Silla to take over the rest of the peninsula. D) Silla was the only fertile land of the Korean regions. E) Silla was the only one of the three kingdoms to prevent a full takeover by the Tang Empire.
E) Silla was the only one of the three kingdoms to prevent a full takeover by the Tang Empire.
The government under the rule of the shogun was known as the bakufu, or "tent government." A) True B) False
When the Tang dynasty collapsed, and after almost a thousand years of Chinese domination, the Vietnamese overthrew Chinese rule, and established a new state called Dai Viet. A) True B) False
Korea A) was more influenced by Chinese ideas and practices than any other East Asian society. B) did not develop a full governmental structure until the Yuan Dynasty imposed one in the thirteenth century. C) has a warm, humid climate, never experiencing sub-freezing temperatures. D) during the Koryo Dynasty, curbed the power of the nobility, permanently establishing a centralized administrative structure. E) had almost no contact with Japan until the nineteenth century.
A) was more influenced by Chinese ideas and practices than any other East Asian society.
Literally meaning "pot scenery," the Japanese word for miniature plant display is A) Naga Kura. B) bonsai. C) kamikaze. D) kana. E) haniwa.
The genin were A) large landowners during the Ashikaga period. B) the wealthiest samurai. C) landless laborers who could be bought and sold by the owners of the land. D) hereditary slaves, and often of Ainu or Korean ancestry. E) Buddhist priests.
C) landless laborers who could be bought and sold by the owners of the land.
The class of hereditary slaves who performed degrading occupations in Japan was the A) untouchables. B) genin. C) tatami. D) pariah. E) eta.
In 800, Charlemagne was crowned A) King of the Franks. B) Bishop of Rome. C) Ruler of the Germans. D) Roman Emperor. E) Emperor of the East.
D) Roman Emperor.
The Vikings were particularly successful in their attacks because they had mastered the use of gunpowder.
The wergeld was A) the man price. B) a chieftain. C) a Germanic deity. D) siege machinery. E) a Germanic legal code.
A) the man price.
The Crusades of the eleventh and twelfth centuries A) began as an attempt to defeat the Greek Orthodox church. B) were intended to capture Jerusalem and place it under Christian authority. C) was centered on the intended defeat of Muslims in Spain. D) were designed to improve relations between the popes and the Holy Roman Emperor. E) were successful and built a relationship between the Catholic and the Greek Orthodox churches.
B) were intended to capture Jerusalem and place it under Christian authority.
The Slavs A) divided into seven specific groups during the Middle Ages. B) became Roman Catholic, with the exception of the Russians, Turks and Magyars. C) were divided into two religious groups, with most southern and eastern Slavs becoming Orthodox and most northern and western Slavs becoming Roman Catholic. D) converted to Islam after the First Crusade. E) briefly occupied northern Italy.
C) were divided into two religious groups, with most southern and eastern Slavs becoming Orthodox and most northern and western Slavs becoming Roman Catholic.
The Holy Office, or Inquisition, was the court established by the church to uncover heresy and punish religious heretics. A) True B) False
All of the following were true of the medieval peasants' life except A) their housing was quite basic. B) they were members of agricultural craft guilds. C) peasant women had a challenging role. D) their diet was simple but adequate when food was available. E) they owed labor services to the lord of the manor.
B) they were members of agricultural craft guilds.
The Viking discoverer of Greenland was A) Vladimir the Bold. B) Erik the Red. C) Leif Erikson. D) Wilbur the Just. E) Ivar the Boneless.
B) Erik the Red.
Who did Pope Leo III crown emperor in 800 at a Christmas mass in Rome? A) Clovis B) Charlemagne C) Peppin the Short D) Charles Martel E) Einhard
The appearance of the violent and destructive Mongol Empire ended all trade between the West and China. A) True B) False
What was purpose did the flying buttresses of Gothic cathedrals serve? A) They were purely decorative. B) They were symbolic representations of God. C) They were used to spread out the weight of the walls. D) The purpose of the buttresses is unknown today. E) The flying buttresses were used to support the large stained glass windows in the cathedrals.
C) They were used to spread out the weight of the walls.
Vassals A) took vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience. B) generated most of their livable income from trade and commerce. C) were supported by the income from a fief of land. D) were owed allegiance by their lords. E) were unfree peasants.
C) were supported by the income from a fief of land.
The demesne was the land on the manor retained by the lord and worked by peasants and serfs. A) True B) False
Who were the Asian people, defeated at the Battle of Lechfeld, who became Christians and went on to establish the Kingdom of Hungary? A) the Mongols B) the Magyars C) the Vikings D) the Slavs E) the Golden Horde
B) the Magyars
The interdict was the weapon used by kings and emperors against the Church. A) True B) False
Which of the following was not characteristic of Gothic architecture? A) stained glass windows B) ribbed vaults and pointed arches C) flying buttresses D) thick walls E) a play of lightness
D) thick walls
The medieval religious order which was noted for its commitment to living among the common people and ministering to the poor was the A) Cistercians. B) Dominicans. C) Jesuits. D) Benedictines. E) Franciscans.
Medieval trade guilds set standards for craft production and prices, and A) encouraged experimentation in religious beliefs. B) ran independent states. C) provided financial support for members and their families. D) encouraged women to join as full members. E) encouraged Jews to join and thus helped integrate them into medieval towns.
C) provided financial support for members and their families.
The cleric who preached up the Second Crusade in the 1140s was A) St. Bernard of Clairvaux. B) Pope Urban II. C) Pope Innocent III. D) Peter the Hermit. E) Cyril and Methodius.
A) St. Bernard of Clairvaux.
Leonardo da Vinci frequently left paintings unfinished because A) he was lazy. B) he ran out of ideas. C) he was often sickly and unable to paint. D) he was rarely satisfied with his own work. E) he hated his patrons and wanted to punish them.
D) he was rarely satisfied with his own work.
As a result of the Fourth Crusade, the West established a permanent political presence in the Byzantine Empire. A) True B) False
The l'uomo universale was the ideal of the Renaissance, and who was a person who was capable of achievements in many areas of life. A) True B) False
By the end of the Hundred Years' War, the French gained victory because of A) cannon and gunpowder. B) the crossbow. C) the longbow. D) heavily armored cavalry. E) German mercenaries.
A) cannon and gunpowder.
The epidemics of the Black Death, which began in 1347, led to A) an increase in wages for workers. B) continuous peace between European nations. C) the movements of large populations into the cities of Europe. D) a lack of interest in the Christian faith. E) an increase in anti-Semitism.
E) an increase in anti-Semitism.
The Great Schism A) resulted in the capture of Jerusalem by Saladin. B) saw two different individuals claiming to be the true pope. C) was the result of the investiture controversy between Gregory VII and Henry IV. D) led to the Hundred Years' War between England and France. E) led to the sacking of Constantinople be crusaders from the West.
B) saw two different individuals claiming to be the true pope.
The major threat to the Byzantine Empire in the eleventh century came from the A) Arabs. B) Seljuk Turks. C) Ottoman Turks. D) Austrians. E) Persians.
B) Seljuk Turks.
The Renaissance began in A) Byzantium. B) France. C) Italy. D) Spain. E) Flanders.
The Hagia Sophia was built by the Byzantine emperor Constantine when he moved the capital of the Roman Empire to Constantinople. A) True B) False
10. Flagellants A) was the term used to describe the aristocratic opponents of rebelling serfs. B) were Jews who beat themselves in an effort to avoid harsher abuse by Christians. C) were a new order of friars which were established in France by Joan of Arc. D) were Christian fanatics who physically scourged themselves during the Black Death. E) were hereditary slaves in fifteenth-century Italy.
D) were Christian fanatics who physically scourged themselves during the Black Death.
England won the Hundred Years' War against France. A) True B) False
Iconoclasm A) created a division in the Roman Church but not the Orthodox Church. B) required the worship of icons by Orthodox Christians. C) outlawed the use of icons in the Byzantine Empire. D) was imposed upon the East by Charlemagne. E) was a political movement to restore the primacy of Latin in the Byzantine Empire.
C) outlawed the use of icons in the Byzantine Empire.
The Black Death A) was spread by fleas carrying Yersinia pestis. B) killed ninety-five percent of its victims in urban areas. C) had been an ongoing problem in Europe since the late Roman Empire. D) killed many people, but had no effect on economic affairs. E) had no religious implications.
A) was spread by fleas carrying Yersinia pestis
14. England won the Hundred Year's War because of the English reliance on the longbow. A) True B) False
Before Constantine made Constantinople the new capital of Rome in 324, what was the name of that city? A) Jerusalem B) Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen) C) Milan D) Byzantium
Justinian's most lasting accomplishment was A) his victory over the Ostrogoths. B) his defeat of the Muslim armies outside of Constantinople. C) the Corpus Iuris Civilis. D) his victory over the Nika rioters. E) the construction of Notre Dame.
C) the Corpus Iuris Civilis.
Justinian's most significant accomplishment was in permanently reuniting the old Roman Empire. A) True B) False
Because of the lack of sanitation, the mortality rate of the Black Death was considerably higher in rural areas than in urban areas. A) True B) False
19. The painter who was famous for his madonnas was A) Leonardo da Vinci. B) Michelangelo. C) Masaccio. D) Raphael. E) Alberti.
In 1453, the Byzantine Empire fell to the A) Arabs. B) Seljuk Turks. C) Ottoman Turks. D) Bulgars and Ukranians. E) the crusaders.
C) Ottoman Turks.
The Cape of Good Hope was rounded in 1487 by A) Abram Voorhies. B) Vasco da Gama. C) Ferdinand Magellan. D) Bartolomeu Dias. E) Henry the Navigator.
D) Bartolomeu Dias
Which of the following was the most important reason for the massive growth of the African slave trade in the sixteenth century? A) the need to supply the mines of Peru with an abundant labor force B) the desire to develop the tobacco plantations of the New World C) intense labor needs created by the development of sugar growing in the New World D) the enormous growth in the African birth rate E) the European ability to obtain slaves in many West African areas
C) intense labor needs created by the development of sugar growing in the New World
Vasco da Gama was the first European to reach India by sailing around Africa. A) True B) False
Europeans embarked on expansionist voyages for all of the following reasons except A) there was a potential for economic gain through increased world trade. B) some desired to spread Christianity to other parts of the world. C) they had developed confidence from improved cartography, navigational methods, and ship designs. D) fear than Islam would occupy the rest of the world if Christendom did not. E) knowledge of wind patterns in the Atlantic Ocean.
D) fear than Islam would occupy the rest of the world if Christendom did not.
Spanish conquistadors were reluctant to conquer native American peoples because they believed military conquest was anti-Christian. A) True B) False
By the twelfth century, a great center of Islamic learning in West Africa was A) Great Zimbabwe. B) Timbuktu. C) Mansa Musa. D) Niger. E) Zanj.
Before the coming of the Europeans, most slaves in Africa were prisoners of war captives or had inherited their status. A) True B) False
All of the following were part of the Columbian Exchange except A) cows and horses were introduced into the Western hemisphere. B) potatoes and corn were introduced into Europe from the Americas. C) potatoes and corn were introduced into the Americas from Europe. D) smallpox arrived in the Americas from Europe. E) gunpowder and guns were introduced into the Americas from Europe.
C) potatoes and corn were introduced into the Americas from Europe.
Christopher Columbus A) was an escaped criminal from Munich when he sailed to the Americas. B) was of Genoese origin, although he gained fame in the service of the Portuguese king. C) was the brother of Hessin Cortes. D) converted to Islam on his forty-third birthday. E) believed that Asia was larger, and closer to Europe by water, than people then thought.
E) believed that Asia was larger, and closer to Europe by water, than people then thought.
The European power that emerged triumphant in the Indonesian archipelago, and took over virtually the entire region by the end of the eighteenth century, was A) Spain. B) France. C) the Netherlands. D) Britain. E) Portugal.
C) the Netherlands.
The Treaty of Tordesillas A) divided the "new" areas discovered by Europeans between the English and the French. B) divided the "new" areas discovered by Europeans between Spain and Portugal. C) gave the English the eastern route around the Cape of Good Hope. D) gave the French the eastern route around the Cape of Good Hope. E) ended the Hundred Years War.
B) divided the "new" areas discovered by Europeans between Spain and Portugal.
Social institutions tended to be fairly homogenous throughout Southeast Asia during the early modern era. A) True B) False
By the early 1400s a growing percentage of the Asian spice trade was being transported A) by camel caravans across Arabia. B) in European ships, particularly Dutch and Portuguese. C) in Muslim ships. D) in Chinese ships as evidenced by the voyages of Zheng He. E) across the Silk Road from China.
C) in Muslim ships.
A major Spanish base of operations in Southeast Asia was established in A) Malacca. B) Vietnam. C) Burman lands. D) Java. E) the Philippines.
E) the Philippines.
There had been no slavery in Africa before the arrival of the Europeans. A) True B) False
The chief institution of Spanish colonial administration in the western hemisphere was the A) New Spain Board of Trade. B) Casa de Contratactión. C) Council of the Indies. D) Casa de Los Indies. E) Chamber of Commerce.
C) Council of the Indies.
With the coming of the Europeans, Christianity replaced Buddhism and Islam as the major religion of Southeast Asia. A) True B) False
In Spain's New World Empire A) Spanish colonials, following the lead of Bartolomé de Las Casas, were much less harsh toward the American natives than the Spanish government urged them to be. B) the encomienda policies insured only a 2 percent profit per year to each Spanish investor. C) the number of natives on the island of Hispaniola was increased from 300 to 100,000 between 1493 and 1570. D) the Spanish monarchy, by special agreement with the papacy, had extensive powers over Church activities in the Americas. E) the native Americans eagerly and consistently embraced Spanish colonial policies.
D) the Spanish monarchy, by special agreement with the papacy, had extensive powers over Church activities in the Americas.
Which of the following products attracted the greatest European interest in Southeast Asia in the period between 1500 and 1800? A) opium B) slaves C) pepper and other spices D) rayon E) ayuthaya
C) pepper and other spices
Because of the harsh environment, Islam had little impact in West Africa. A) True B) False
An important reason why Henry VIII broke with the Roman church was because A) he became a Lutheran. B) he wanted to develop a distinct English Christianity for nationalistic reasons. C) the Archbishop of Canterbury had a direct confrontation with the Patriarch of Constantinople. D) he could not get Rome's permission to divorce his wife, Catherine of Aragon. E) his dislike of women caused him to become an Anglican priest.
D) he could not get Rome's permission to divorce his wife, Catherine of Aragon.
The artistic movement that dominated the Western artistic world during the seventeenth century was known as Neo-classical, inspired by the legacy of Greece and Rome. A) True B) False
Advocates of "mercantilism" argued for all of the following except A) governments should abstain from any involvement in the economy. B) a nation prosperity depended upon a plentiful supply of bullion (gold and silver). C) exports must exceed imports. D) tariffs should be place on foreign goods. E) governments should improve transportation facilities and grant trade monopolies to businesses.
A) governments should abstain from any involvement in the economy.
All of the following statements are correct except A) in Europe, as in China, most marriages were arranged by the parents. B) love was the major reason for marriage. C) the husband was to be the ruler and the wife was to obey. D) in the early modern period the family was the heart of the social order. E) in addition to obeying her husband, the wife's other role was to bear children.
B) love was the major reason for marriage.
After the Council of Trent, the Catholic Church had a clear body of doctrine under the supremacy of the pope. A) True B) False
The Baroque painting style was especially evident in the works of A) El Greco. B) Peter Paul Rubens. C) Gian Lorenzo Bernini. D) Nicholas Poussin. E) Nicholas van Zandt.
B) Peter Paul Rubens.
Where Lutheranism was established, the state played no role in supervising or overseeing the church. A) True B) False
Luther's reforms included all of the following except A) clerical celibacy. B) a national church in Germany. C) new religious services, including Bible reading and preaching. D) a married Protestant clergy. E) salvation by faith.
A) clerical celibacy.
The most influential Christian humanist, who popularized the reform program of Christian humanism, was A) John of Ockham. B) Martin Luther. C) John Calvin. D) Desiderius Erasmus. E) Ulrich Zwingli.
D) Desiderius Erasmus.
After the Turks were defeated in 1687 all of Hungary, Transylvania, Croatia, and Slovenia came under Habsburg rule, thus establishing in southeastern Europe the A) German Empire. B) Holy Roman Empire. C) Austrian Empire. D) Bohemian Empire. E) Ottoman Empire.
C) Austrian Empire.
Although ostensibly under the control of the kings of Siam, the port of Malacca was also allied with A) Constantinople. B) Kilwa. C) Great Zimbabwe. D) China.
After the death of Henry VIII, England A) returned to Catholicism. B) became Lutheran. C) established a republic, called the "Commonwealth." D) became more Catholic under Edward VI. E) became more Protestant under Edward VI.
E) became more Protestant under Edward VI.
Queen Elizabeth I A) was the first female ruler of France. B) became hated because of her attempt to restore Roman Catholicism in England. C) slapped Paul III in the face after a lengthy, and heated, theological debate. D) successfully survived the Spanish armada. E) engineered the brilliant English-Swedish naval success at the Battle of Lepanto.
D) successfully survived the Spanish armada
The traditional example of seventeenth century absolutism has been the rule of A) Louis XVI. B) James III. C) Louis XIV. D) Charles II. E) Ivan IV.
C) Louis XIV.
The city most associated with Calvin is A) Berne. B) Paris. C) Geneva. D) Rome. E) Zurich.
The individual who "laid the egg that Luther hatched" was A) Machiavelli. B) Erasmus. C) Gutenberg. D) Calvin. E) England's Henry VIII.
As a result of the 1555 Peace of Augsburg, A) Calvinism became the dominant faith in northern Germany. B) Germany became highly centralized. C) Charles V reinforced his control over the German princes. D) Lutheranism became established as an alternative to Roman Catholicism in Germany. E) France was able to become independent of the Holy Roman Empire.
D) Lutheranism became established as an alternative to Roman Catholicism in Germany.
The third estates included A) priests and monks. B) kings and emperors. C) knights and squires. D) peasants, merchants, and artisans. E) b and c
D) peasants, merchants, and artisans.
Although world-wide trade increased in seventeenth century, local, regional, and intra-European trade still predominated. A) True B) False
The greatest danger to Louis XIV's rule came from rebellious peasants. A) True B) False
The "red heads" were A) the light-haired warriors who destroyed Bokhara in 1380. B) followers of the Shi'ite doctrines of Safi al Din. C) Ottoman Yeni Chari fighters and their "scholar bodyguards." D) Muslim fugitives from Ireland. E) Sufi mystics.
B) followers of the Shi'ite doctrines of Safi al Din.
Janissaries were Hindu rajputs who were converted to Islam by the Ottoman. A) True B) False
Under emperor Akbar, the Mughals of India A) forcibly converted the population to Islam. B) discouraged foreign trade. C) promoted tolerance between Muslims and Hindus. D) established a long-lived dynasty that would rule India until the twentieth century. E) emancipated women from traditional Hindu restrictions.
C) promoted tolerance between Muslims and Hindus.
Suleiman the Magnificent A) conquered Constantinople. B) conquered Vienna. C) stopped the Portuguese from establishing trade ports in Indonesia. D) created the largest Shi'ite empire in Muslim history. E) led the greatest expansion of Ottoman territory.
E) led the greatest expansion of Ottoman territory.
Aurangzeb A) issued orders to prohibit sati and the castration of eunuchs. B) ended the zamindar system and created an efficient tax revenue. C) ended the forced conversions to Islam. D) expanded the tolerant religious policies of his predecessor. E) abdicated in favor of his son, Babur.
A) issued orders to prohibit sati and the castration of eunuchs.
The Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal empires were all of nomadic origin. A) True B) False
The sixteenth-century Hindi version of the retelling of the Ramayana was written by A) Tulsidas. B) Gandhi. C) Krishna. D) Rajasthani. E) Heraclion.
The Mughals were founded by a descendent of Genghis Khan. A) True B) False
In the sixteenth century, the Safavid Empire A) was opposed by a nomadic Turkish tribe known as the Qizilbash. B) established a militant Shi'ite, yet cosmopolitan, state in Persia. C) was colonized by Europe. D) conquered the Ottoman Empire. E) merged with the Ottoman Empire.
B) established a militant Shi'ite, yet cosmopolitan, state in Persia.
Safavid power was spread through Persia by A) resurgent Sunni military leaders. B) Ismail's militant use of Shi'ite Islam to unify the region. C) Safi's enforcement of sufi mysticism throughout the region. D) Shah Abbas' successful military campaigns against the Byzantines. E) Sunni pashas.
B) Ismail's militant use of Shi'ite Islam to unify the region.
The Ottoman Turks renamed Constantinople A) Kuycik. B) Istanbul. C) Anatolia. D) Adrianople. E) Ankara.
Unlike the Ottoman Empire, the Safavid Empire embraced Sunni Islam. A) True B) False
Constantinople was captured by the A) Seljuk Turks, led by Suleyman the Magnificent. B) Ottoman Turks, led by Tamerlane. C) Safavids, under Shah Ismail. D) Ottoman Turks, headed by Mehmet II. E) Mongols, led by Akbar.
D) Ottoman Turks, headed by Mehmet II.
In the daily life of Mughal India, the Muslim practice of barring women from associating with men outside the home was known as A) sati. B) zamindar. C) purdah. D) raga. E) harem.
Mughal architectural developments A) were always undertaken after making certain that expenditures on them would not injure mass living standards. B) often blended Persian and Indian styles to achieve new and beautiful results. C) borrowed heavily from Tibetan and Ottoman styles D) were influenced by the construction techniques of Yuan China. E) were imposed on the Mughals by the British East India Co.
B) often blended Persian and Indian styles to achieve new and beautiful results.
The first Mughal emperor, Babur, was descended from both Tamerlane and Genghis Khan. A) True B) False
In 1529, Suleyman I the Magnificent conquered Vienna. A) True B) False
All of the following were true about the expansion of the Ottoman Empire except A) under Selim I, the Ottomans controlled the Middle East and North Africa. B) by the early sixteenth century, Ottoman power allowed Murad to conquer African Ethiopia. C) the Ottomans gained control over Mecca and Medina. D) by the early eighteenth century, Ottoman control in North Africa had become weaker. E) the Ottomans were twice repulsed on the outskirts of Vienna.
B) by the early sixteenth century, Ottoman power allowed Murad to conquer African Ethiopia.
Ottoman expansion A) was achieved without any change in military organization or technology between 1400-1700. B) relied heavily on the development of the Janissaries and new artillery weapons and tactics in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. C) absorbed Persia and Samarkand during the 1570s. D) seized Ukraine during the late 1600s, but it was lost again in the early 1700s. E) saw the use of slaves as conscript soldiers.
B) relied heavily on the development of the Janissaries and new artillery weapons and tactics in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.
Babur, the founder of the Mughal Dynasty in India, A) traced his roots to Muhammad on his mother's side. B) took Isfahan early in the sixteenth century, before leading his forces into India. C) was born in Egypt. D) established his northern Indian domain after his conquest of Delhi, and died at age of 47. E) was the first Chinese-born ruler of India.
D) established his northern Indian domain after his conquest of Delhi, and died at age of 47.
The Ming built the Forbidden City within Beijing, but they were not the first Chinese dynasty to use Beijing as the capital of China. A) True B) False
The samurai reached the apex of the military prowess and influence during the Tokugawa shogunate. A) True B) False
In order to enhance its authority over the general population including the peasants, the shogunate relied upon A) force and intimidation by samurai warriors. B) high taxes. C) Confucian maxims. D) cheap food and entertainment. E) restoring the emperor to power.
C) Confucian maxims
The Treaty of Nerchinsk A) created an anti-Chinese alliance between Japan and Russia. B) settled the location of the Sino-Russian boundary. C) established formal diplomatic relations between Korea and Japan. D) was not consummated due to the Russian refusal to perform the kowtow. E) gave the Russians the control of Beijing.
B) settled the location of the Sino-Russian boundary.
The primary fighting force of Qing China was the A) Persian and Uzbek janissary corps. B) dyarchy. C) green standard. D) bannermen. E) queues.
The first major ruler of the Qing Dynasty was A) Kangxi. B) Hongwu. C) Qianling. D) Yongle. E) Asoka.
After the expulsion of Christian missionaries and other Westerners, the Japanese allowed only the Dutch access to Japan. A) True B) False
One of the policies of the Tokugawa designed to centralize their authority in Japan was A) to restore power to the emperor. B) to require the daimyo, or nobles, to visit Edo frequently. C) to disarm the samurai. D) to encourage the conversion of the peasantry to Christianity. E) to allow Western merchants to trade freely at the shoguns' court in Edo.
B) to require the daimyo, or nobles, to visit Edo frequently.
Chinese women had a higher status than women in other East Asian and Southeast Asian societies because of the heritage of Confucius. A) True B) False
The separate territories, or domains, of the Tokugawa shogunate were called A) han. B) tozama. C) bakufu. D) fudai. E) zirkit.
China's population A) had a majority of females over males as so many of the latter died in China's many wars. B) was about 400,000,000 in 1395. C) was stagnant between 1600 and 1700. D) grew fast during the 1600-1800 period, reaching over 300,000,000 by 1800. E) declined between 1600 and 1800 because of a renewal of the bubonic plague.
D) grew fast during the 1600-1800 period, reaching over 300,000,000 by 1800.
Lord Macartney convinced Emperor Qianlong to open Chinese ports to British trade. A) True B) False
The "Sacred Edict" delineating proper Confucian behavior was issued by A) Kangxi. B) Ming-Loi. C) Wu Zhao. D) the Duke of Kamchatka. E) Yongle.
Lord Macartney successfully led a British expedition to Qing China in 1792 and forced the Chinese to open up more treaty ports. A) True B) False
The decline of the Ming began during the reign of Kangxi. A) True B) False
The Ming Emperor Yongle moved the capital of China to A) Nanjing. B) Canton. C) Chang-an. D) Beijing.
Unemployed samurai warriors were known as the A) eta. B) ronin. C) yangban. D) fudai. E) tozama.
The Ming Dynasty A) under Yongle, had Chinese ships bring back Christian missionaries to China. B) sent a fleet far into the Indian Ocean. C) sent a huge army into Japan, which captured and held the city of Edo for one year until a debt owed to the Chinese government was paid. D) saw their fleets reach the Mediterranean Sea. E) dismantled the Great Wall as it was no longer needed for the defense of China.
B) sent a fleet far into the Indian Ocean.
In Qing China A) love was seen as a problem because it diverted a couple from their duties to the larger family. B) a family unit might include members of only two living in one house. C) realistic social novels were published in China only in the early twentieth century. D) women held a uniquely honored position in the family because they bore the children. E) romantic love was the norm.
A) love was seen as a problem because it diverted a couple from their duties to the larger family.
Which of the following is accurate regarding of the effects of Qianlong's trade policy with England? A) It showed Lord Macartney that he could not continue to attack the Emperor. B) It set the stage for a future of harmonious trade relations between the two powers. C) It showed the compromising nature of the Chinese attitude. D) It set the stage for a future of Chinese degradation and decline. E) The emperor encouraged the British to import opium from India to China.
D) It set the stage for a future of Chinese degradation and decline.
Outside of Europe, the major scenes of battle in the Seven Years War were A) North America and Africa. B) Central America and India. C) India and North America. D) Latin America and Africa. E) North America and Latin America.
C) India and North America.
Maria Winkelmann was the author of the Vindication of the Right of Women. A) True B) False
The Committee of Public Safety was established to A) negotiate a military alliance with England. B) combat the dual threat of internal rebellion and foreign invasion. C) provide the nation with a renewed monarchy. D) negotiate the safe return of French emigres. E) control the ambitions of Napoleon.
B) combat the dual threat of internal rebellion and foreign invasion.
The intellectuals of the Enlightenment advocated the A) creation of a new religion of sciences. B) use of the scientific method to foster progress toward a "better" society. C) application of religious precepts to all knowledge. D) inversion of human development. E) abandonment of reason for the purpose of developing human knowledg
B) use of the scientific method to foster progress toward a "better" society.
On the eve of the French Revolution, all of the following are correct except A) the hereditary aristocracy was still the most powerful class in European society. B) the nobles and clergy in France were effectively untaxed, even as the French treasury neared bankruptcy and millions were hungry. C) the bourgeoisie comprised about eight percent of the population. D) the peasants were enthusiastic for revolutionary change. E) monarchy was the norm for European governments.
D) the peasants were enthusiastic for revolutionary change.
When the nobility of France refused to approve new taxes to service the national debt, King Louis XVI was forced to call the A) Estates General. B) Continental Congress. C) Congress of Vienna. D) National Assembly. E) Constitutional Convention.
A) Estates General
Isaac Newton was an inspiration for the Enlightenment in his contention that the world and everything in it worked like a giant machine. A) True B) False
In his Essay Concerning Human Understanding, the writer who said each of us is born with a tabula rasa was A) John Locke. B) Rene Descartes. C) Voltaire. D) Isaac Newton. E) Jean-Jacques Rousseau.
A) John Locke.
By 1763, Great Britain had become the world's greatest colonial power. A) True
In the Enlightenment, many intellectuals argued that women were by nature inferior to men. A) True B) False
The philosophe who praised the checks and balances of the British constitution was A) Diderot. B) Voltaire. C) Montesquieu. D) Rousseau. E) Descartes.
The Estates-General was convened in 1789 in order to deal with the A) invasion of Silesia. B) near bankruptcy of the French Treasury. C) grievances of the French peasantry. D) discontent in the French colonies. E) Louis XVI's demand for more power.
B) near bankruptcy of the French Treasury.
A discovery made by Galileo was the A) development of the calculus. B) fallacy of the existence of sunspots and the phases of Venus. C) five moons revolving around Pluto. D) similarity of the material composition of other planets and the moon to that of the earth. E) totally flat terrain of the earth's moon.
D) similarity of the material composition of other planets and the moon to that of the earth.
Isaac Newton discovered A) that the sun was the center of the celestial plan. B) that the sun was imperfect. C) how to turn base metals into gold. D) that mathematics could not be used to prove theories about the physical world. E) the force of gravity, or mutual attraction.
E) the force of gravity, or mutual attraction.
Newton's Principia A) placed the earth at the center of the universe. B) rejected the ideas of Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo. C) mathematically disproved the universal law of gravitation. D) supplied the new theory of the universe that combined the work of Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo. E) proved that Luther was correct regarding salvation by faith.
D) supplied the new theory of the universe that combined the work of Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo.
Which of the following statements would John Locke find acceptable? A) Some of us are born bad. B) A positive environment will create positive results. C) Everything that we are is in our genes. D) Faith, not reason, determines what we know. E) Original sin places limits on individual aspirations.
B) A positive environment will create positive results.
Toussaint L'Ouverture led a royalist rebellion against the radicalism of French Revolution in the French colony of Saint Domingue. A) True B) False
The best statement of laissez-faire as providing the foundation for economic liberalism was made in 1776 by A) John McDonald. B) Adam Smith. C) Robert Walpole. D) Robert Burns. E) Lord Gordon Brown.
B) Adam Smith.
The new United States Constitution of 1787 A) employed Montesquieu's conception of the separation of powers. B) was rejected by most Americans until it was finally passed on a third referendum. C) was created by delegates who, like the nation's population, were mainly small farmers. D) was soon abolished and replaced by the Articles of Confederation. E) abolished slavery.
A) employed Montesquieu's conception of the separation of powers.
In line with mercantilist theory, A) governments had nothing to do regarding trade and manufacturing policies. B) Latin American countries traded exclusively with their "mother" countries. C) Latin American colonies were encouraged to manufacture. D) American colonies were viewed as sources of raw materials and markets by Europeans. E) the production of heavy industrial products was instituted in Mexico in 1734.
D) American colonies were viewed as sources of raw materials and markets by Europeans.
Khubilai Khan's capital was located in A) Samarkand. B) Chang'an. C) Khanbaliq. D) Hangzhou. E) Karakorum.
Which of the following accurately characterizes the medieval Chinese family? A) It was female-dominated. B) Its ideal state was that of a joint group of at least two generations. C) Its moral foundation was filial piety. D) The ideal of filial piety was abandoned. E) Most families lived on isolated farmsteads.
C) Its moral foundation was filial piety.
The Taika reforms, based upon the Chinese model, were intended to make the Japanese government operate more efficiently. A) True B) False
Local government in medieval China A) was based on provinces, each containing 12,500,000 inhabitants. B) required the entire population to play an active part. C) did not include appointed government officials at the village level. D) was totally changed after the Song Dynasty began. E) was based upon Doaist principles.
C) did not include appointed government officials at the village level.
A major advantage that the Ottomans had against Constantinople in 1453 was A) cavalry. B) the longbow. C) the crossbow. D) Greek fire. E) gunpowder.
Which of the following revolutionized warfare in the early Middle Ages? A) gunpowder B) the stirrup C) the emergence of a money economy D) he longbow E) he Black Death
B) the stirrup
Which of the following was not true about medieval Christianity? A) The influence of feudalism increased the secular behavior of many religious leaders. B) The Investiture Struggle was fought over the temporal role into the appointment of church officials. C) Papal authority had diminished by the thirteenth century. D) Innocent III provided proof of papal supremacy with his actions in a number of matters regarding the European monarchs. E) The new friars of the 1200s directly influenced the lives of ordinary people.
C) Papal authority had diminished by the thirteenth century.
Japan's people A) are the only racially homogenous people in East Asia. B) are all descended from the Ainu invaders who took over the islands by 75 C.E. C) never developed a locally originated belief system. D) are the result of a mixture of peoples from various parts of Asia and beyond. E) are all biologically descended from Amaterasu.
D) are the result of a mixture of peoples from various parts of Asia and beyond.
Heian, which was the capital of Japan beginning in 794, was built on the site of present-day Kyoto. A) True B) False
Of the three philosophies competing for attention in medieval China, A) Manichaeanism had the largest following. B) Confucianism triumphed because it adhered to the Chinese social need to support the concepts of hard work and filial piety. C) Buddhism prevailed because of its divine visions. D) Daoism triumphed because of its philosophical underpinnings. E) neither Buddhism nor Daoism ever offered an alternative to restrictive Confucian theology.
B) Confucianism triumphed because it adhered to the Chinese social need to support the concepts of hard work and filial piety.
The council that ended the Great Schism was the council of A) Clermont. B) Canossa. C) Orleans. D) Constance. E) Trent.
In terms of its relations with neighboring powers, the Song A) met their ultimate demise at the hands of the Mongols. B) was able to maintain a permanent dominance over the Jin Dynasty of the Jurchens. C) reconquered the northern region controlled by the Uighurs. D) learned from the mistakes of the Tang and avoided a similar fate. E) conquered Japan, the first time that this had happened.
A) met their ultimate demise at the hands of the Mongols.
In 1054 the leaders of the Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church excommunicated each other, leading to a split in Christendom which continues to the present. A) True B) False
The Koryo dynasty arose in northern Korea in the tenth century, and retained power for four hundred years. A) True B) False
Over the course of the three centuries after the fall of the Han and before the rise of the Sui Dynasty, A) China experienced a period of tranquility and order. B) Confucianism grew in popularity. C) Buddhism developed a much wider following among the Chinese people. D) Daoism disappeared in China. E) Islam made its first appearance in China.
C) Buddhism developed a much wider following among the Chinese people.
Shotuku Taishi A) was a Chinese Buddhist monk who became the first Heian emperor. B) was believed to be the son of Izanami by the Koreans of Silla and people of Shikoku. C) used Chinese political procedures to strengthen Japanese unity to resist Chinese power. D) sent missions to India to study the more centralized system of government there. E) was the first shogun of Japan.
C) used Chinese political procedures to strengthen Japanese unity to resist Chinese power.
High Middle Ages agriculture included all except A) extensive swamp draining and land clearance. B) increased output by increasing the amount of land used for farming. C) improved methods through the use of iron tools. D) adopting the three-field system. E) the use of slave labor.
E) the use of slave labor.
All of the following factors contributed to the end of Mongol rule in China except A) excessive military expenditures. B) insufficient incoming receipts from taxes. C) internal strife, aggravated by growing famine. D) inferior abilities among the successors to Khubilai Khan. E) the plague that killed millions of Mongols in 1241 and 1242.
E) the plague that killed millions of Mongols in 1241 and 1242.
All of the following are correct about the Ming dynasty except A) it extended its rule into Mongolia and Central Asia. B) there were no contacts with Vietnam or Korea. C) the Great Wall was strengthened. D) there was considerable internal reform, including increased manufacturing. E) a series of fleets were sent across the Indian Ocean, including all the way to Afric
B) there were no contacts with Vietnam or Korea.
The early medieval church in the West A) was headed by two rivals, the Archbishop of Milan and the Patriarch of Jerusalem. B) developed a more organized monastic structure under Saint Benedict. C) was for a long time ruled by the Patriarch of Constantinople. D) was under the sole control of the Patriarch of Jerusalem. E) was dominated for several centuries by Arian Christians.
B) developed a more organized monastic structure under Saint Benedict.
The Onin War A) brought Shitoku Taishi to power. B) drove the Mongols from Japan after only eleven years in power there. C) was the major event which caused the collapse of the Kamakura Shogunate in 1256. D) finally restored absolute power to the shogun, Minamoto Yoritomo. E) effectively destroyed the power of the shogunate in the 1470s.
E) effectively destroyed the power of the shogunate in the 1470s.
After the death of Shotoku Taishi, A) the Tokugawa clan seized power. B) the Fujiwara clan was able to decentralize rule in Japan. C) the unequal availability of the civil service examinations enabled the aristocracy to dominate the government. D) the rural upper classes were unable to prevent tax revenues from enriching the urban nobility. E) the emperor took up residence in Edo.
C) the unequal availability of the civil service examinations enabled the aristocracy to dominate the government
The shift from a two-field to a three-field system contributed to the increase in food production in the Middle Ages. A) True B) False
All of the following regarding the Hundred Years' War are correct except A) traditional nobles fighting on horseback were the keys to victory. B) new weapons were used in the war, including the long bow and gunpowder. C) the English were victorious at the battles of Crecy and Agincourt. D) Joan of Arc was burnt at the stake. E) it was fought between England and France.
A) traditional nobles fighting on horseback were the keys to victory.
Charlemagne's Carolingian Empire accomplished all of the following except A) it restored an urban economy based upon the use of money. B) it encompassed much of western and central Europe. C) it depended upon the allegiance of counts who ruled for the monarch in local areas. D) it symbolized the fusion of Roman, German, and Christian elements which would make up medieval civilization in Europe. E) a palace school was established and the handwritten script was reformed.
A) it restored an urban economy based upon the use of money.
The best known Byzantine historian was A) Einhard. B) Tacitus. C) Suetonious. D) Belisarious. E) Procopius.
The Fujiwara clan established the first shogunate after the emperor had moved to the new capital of Nara in 710. A) True B) False
All of the following were true of the political recovery of the fifteenth century in Europe except A) centralized monarchies gained strength in western Europe. B) centralized monarchies gained strength in Germanic central Europe. C) decentralized government became typical in eastern and central Europe. D) the "new monarchies" greatly aided in stabilizing France, Spain, and Englan
B) centralized monarchies gained strength in Germanic central Europe
In Vietnam, A) women had less authority than their counterparts in China. B) women could never initiate divorce proceedings against their husbands. C) women possessed more rights, in practice and in law, than in China. D) Confucianism was never an influence. E) Chinese rule was paramount for almost 1200 years.
C) women possessed more rights, in practice and in law, than in China.
Political disintegration in the fourteenth century resulted from all of the following except A) financial problems. B) use of mercenary soldiers. C) the breakdown of feudalism. D) dynasties had too many male heirs. E) dynasties were unable to produce male heirs.
E) dynasties were unable to produce male heirs.
In the early fourteenth century, the Catholic church A) financed the construction of the new cathedral of St. Peter's in Rome. B) supported the First Crusade at the Council of Clermont. C) was moved to Avignon. D) was placed under the rule of the Holy Roman Emperors. E) banned the use of the inquisition.
C) was moved to Avignon.
Justinian's greatest construction achievement was A) the Hippodrome. B) building the walls that surrounded and defended Constantinople. C) the royal palace at the Golden Horn. D) the Hagia Sophia. E) the Grand Mosque of Istanbul.
D) the Hagia Sophia.
Agriculture in Japan A) was fundamentally changed by the introduction of rice cultivation about 400 B.C.E. B) ended when Uji, the Yayoi leader, seized power after the Battle of Sapporo. C) takes place entirely in the mountains, with no extensive lowland or plains areas except on the island of Ryuku. D) is possible on a significant scale on 80 percent of Japanese land. E) was insufficient to take care of the population, thus Japan depended upon importing rice.
A) was fundamentally changed by the introduction of rice cultivation about 400 B.C.E.
The main purpose for the development of Neo-Confucianism was to A) to deal with the issues of the universe that had been introduced into China by Buddhism and Daoism and which were able to fit into the original Confucian value system. B) counteract the appeal of Islamic ideas. C) turn the Chinese people away from Buddhism, Daoism and Christianity. D) fortify the believer's responsibility to withdraw rather than participate. E) act as a buffer against Muslim missionaries.
A) to deal with the issues of the universe that had been introduced into China by Buddhism and Daoism and which were able to fit into the original Confucian value system.
Which of the following was accomplished by medieval Christian monasteries? A) They launched an early "feminist" movement. B) They served as centers of learning. C) They played a major military role for their religion. D) They enforced the tenets of the Scriptures, often by force. E) They were under the rule of the princeps.
B) They served as centers of learning.
In the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade, the major state of the former Byzantine Empire was the A) Latin Empire of Constantinople. B) Venetian Kingdom of Constantinople. C) Greek Empire of Constantinople. D) Ottoman Turk Empire of Istanbul. E) Latin Kingdom of Anatolia.