21 terms

Unit Two: Part One - Infancy And Childhood

STUDY
PLAY
Developmental psychology
The study of changes that occur as an individual matures
Grasping reflex
An infant's clinging response to a touch on the palm of his or her hand
Rooting reflex
An infant's response in turning toward the source of touching that occurs anywhere around his or her mouth
Maturation
The internally programmed growth of a child
Telegraphic speech
The kind of verbal utterances in which words are left out, but the meaning is usually clear
Schema
A conceptual framework a person uses to make sense of the world
Assimilation
The process of fitting objects and experiences into one's schemas
Accommodation
The adjustment of one's schemas to include newly observed events and experiences
Object permanence
Child's realizing that an object exists even when he or she cannot see or touch it
Representational thought
The intellectual ability of a child to picture something in his or her mind
Conservation
The principle that a given quantity does not change when its appearance is changed
Egocentric
A young child's inability to understand another person's perspective
Imprinting
Inherited tendencies or responses that are displayed by newborn animals when they encounter new stimuli in their environment
Critical period
A specific time in development when certain skills or abilities are most easily learned
Authoritarian family
Parents attempt to control, shape, and evaluate the behavior and attitudes of children and adolescents in accordance with a set of code of conduct
Democratic/authoritative family
Children and adolescents participate in decisions affecting their lives
Permissive/ laissez-faire family
Children and adolescents have the final say; parents are less controlling and have a non punishing, accepting attitude toward children
Socialization
The process of learning the rules of behavior of the culture within which an individual is born and will live
Identification
The process by which a child adopts the values and principles of same-sex parent
Sublimation
The process of redirecting sexual impulses into learning tasks
Role taking
Children's play that involves assuming adult roles, thus enabling the hold to experience different points of view
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