AP Human Geography- Unit 4
Terms in this set (80)
The acquisition of a body of land into territory for a country
South African system of racial segregation
Any region with inner divisions, dividing a place into mall, hostile states.
Union of states comprising three neighboring countries in midwestern Europe: Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg.
Definitional (Boundary Dispute)
Focus on the legal language of the boundary agreement. For example, a boundary definition may stipulate that the median line of a river will mark the boundary.
Locational (Boundary Dispute)
Centers on the delimitation and possibly the demarcation of the boundary. The definition is not in dispute, but its interpretation is.
Operational (Boundary Dispute)
Involves neighbors who differ over the way their border should function.
Allocational (Boundary Dispute)
Against locational boundary disputes (delimitation and possible demarcation of the boundary).
Antecedent (Boundary Origin)
Political boundaries that arose before the ethnic landscape arose and individual people moved in to occupy the surroundings.
Subsequent (Boundary Origins)
Boundary that developed with the evolution of the cultural landscape and is adjusted as the cultural landscape changes.
Superimposed (Boundary Origins)
Political boundary that disregards the existing traditional configuration on land which is usually indentified by higher authority more especially by takeover powers.
Relic (Boundary Origins)
No longer exists as an international boundary, but still has affects on the present-day area.
Boundary Process (Definition)
First, states define the boundary. Next, cartographers delimit the boundary by drawing a map. Third, if desired, they can demarcate the boundary by using visible means to mark the boundary. Finally, the boundary if administrated- to determine how the boundary will be maintained and how goods and people will cross the boundary.
Delimitation (of Boundary Process)
Second step of boundary process when cartographers draw a map.
Demarcation (of Boundary Process)
Third step of boundary process. If either or both states desire the boundary can be visibly marked on the ground.
Natural/Physical Boundary Type
Boundaries that follow an agreed-upon feature in the natural landscape, such as the center point of a river or the crest of a mountain.
Ethnographic/ Cultural Boundary Type
Boundary that marks a break in the human landscape based on ethnicity.
Geometric Boundary Type
When boundaries are drawn using grid systems such as latitude and longitude or township and range, they are this type. (The US and Canada use a single line of latitude west of the Great Lakes to define their boundary.)
A small neutral state between two rival powers.
Forces that divide people in the state/ Forces within a state that unify the people
A city whose surrounding territory forms an independant state
When imperial powers exercised ruthless control over their domains and organized them for maximum economic exploitation.
The process of placing a price on a good, service, or idea and then buying, selling, and trading that item.
An organization consisting of a number of parties or groups united in an alliance or league.
The action of turning a colony or colonies into an independent state.
The movement of power from the central government to regional governments within the state. Sometimes achieved by reworking a constitution to establish a federal system that recognizes the permanency of the regional governments. (Spain.)
Theory predicting that if one nation comes under Communist control, then neighboring nations will do the same.
EEZ (Exclusive Economic Zone)
An area of coastal water and seabed within a certain distance of a country;s coastline; and area to which the country claims exclusive for rights of fishing, drilling, and other economic activities.
Distinct territorial subdivision for holding a separate election for one or more seats in an elective body.
Enclosed territory that is culturally distinct from the surrounding territory/ part of a country that a separated from the rest of a country and surrounded by foreign territory.
To give the right to vote to/ the right to vote in political elections.
Organization of European countries that formed after WWII to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members.
One way of governing a multinational state is by organizing a __ state, a territory organized into regions, substates (which we refer to as States), provinces, or cantons.
Capital city positioned in a potentially contested territory, usually near an international border. It confirms the state's determination to maintain its presence in the region.
A line or border separating two countries.
The interplay among geography, power, politics, and international relations. It helps us understand the arrangements and forces that are transforming the map of the world.
Used to describe "redistricting for advantage." The purpose is to provide representation to minorities who, without it, would not be represented as effectively in the House of Representatives.
The areas in our environment which are available to all, but which no one in particular is responsible for. (ex: atmosphere, fresh water, forest, wildlife, and ocean fisheries).
Type of receiving state to which is the target to many immigrants due to economy, political freedom, & further opportunities.
Symbolizes the geographical conflict between former Soviet bloc and the West prior to the decline of communism that followed the political event in Europe in 1989.
Any position of a state advocating the annexation of territories administered by another state on the common grounds of ethnicity of prior historical possession, actual or alleged.
When a state has no immediate access to an ocean, surrounded by land.
Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)
1994 Constitution to protect the ocean's natural resources.
Packed districts with a majority of the population is from the minority.
19th century doctrine that the expansion of the U.S. throughout the American continents was both justified and inevitable.
Approach to dividing and creating boundaries at the mid point between two places.
Very small, sovereign states with small populations. Micro: under 500 square miles. Mini: 500 to 5,000 square miles.
A state that contains multiple nations within its borders.
A nation that stretches across borders and across states. (Transylvania is in the middle of Romania.)
A group of people who think of themselves as one based on a sense of shared culture and history
Branch of art history which studies the identification, description, and interpretation of images.
A politically organized area in which nation and state occupy the same space.
Arctic territory in Northern Canada created in 1999, governed by the Inuit people. (Homeland of the Inuit people).
Leading city in its region or country which is larger in proportion than any others in urban hierarchy. Law of the Primate City introduced in 1939 by Mark Jefferson. (At least twice as large as the next largest city and more than twice as significant).
French way of saying "reason for being" in English it also suggests a degree of rationalization.
The process by which districts are moved according to population shifts, so that each district encompasses approximately the same number of people.
Loyalty to the interests of a particular region.
The act of two territories coming together again.
A country which is formally independent, but under heavy influence or control of another country.
A government's ability to determine their own course through their own free will.
Having a recognized right to control a territory both politically and militarily.
An area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government.
Stateless ethnic group/ Stateless Nation
A complication that arises from the lack of fit between nations and states when some nations do not have a state. (Ex: Palestinians.)
An entity composed of three or more states that forge an association and form an administrative structure for mutual benefit and in pursuit of shared goals.
Any dispute over land ownership.
Compact (Territorial Morphology)
State w/ a most borders equidistant from its center and its capital in/near the center.
Fragmented (Territorial Morphology)
State w/ it's land broken into separate pieces.
Elongated (Territorial Morphology)
State w/ long, narrow shape.
Prorupt (Territorial Morphology)
Similar to compact state, but with an elongated area bursting forth from one part of it.
Perforated (Territorial Morphology)
When one state encircles another.
The process by which territories come into being. "The attempt by an individual or group to affect, influence, or control people, phenomena, and relationships, by delimiting and asserting control over a geographic area."
A system of government in which political leaders rule in the name of God or a god.
A port bound by treaty to be open for free trade (China and Japan in the early 20th century).
The framework of a __ __ is designed to ensure the central government's authority over all parts of the state.
Berlin Conference (Know it)
Regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period.
Peace of Westphalia (Know it)
The event in European history that marks the beginning of the modern state system, negotiated in 1648 among princes of the states making up the Holy Roman Empire, as well as a few neighboring states.
Merchantilism (Know it)
A belief in the benefits of popular trading; commercialism.
Capitalism (Know it)
In the world economy, individuals, corporations, and states produce goods and services that are exchanged for profit. The generate a profit, producers seek the cheapest production and costs.
Israel/Palestine conflict (Know it)
Ongoing struggle between Israelis and Palestinians that began in the mid-20th century. Both want controls over mutual recognitions, borders, security, water rights, control of Jerusalem, Israeli settlements, Palestinian freedom of movement, and refugee problems.
NAFTA (Know it)
North American Free Trade Agreement entered by the United States, Mexico, and Canada in January 1994. The largest free trade area and richest market in the world.