Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Terms in this set (49)
Based on Acanthostega fossils, scientists now believe that the earliest tetrapods were
fish that used their limbs to raise themselves out of the water to get gulps of air for oxygen.
The tuatara is a lizard-like reptile found only in New Zealand today, the last surviving lineage of a large group of reptiles that were contemporaries of the dinosaurs. Which of the following traits would you expect the tuatara to possess?
amniotic egg and scaly skin
By far the largest number of extant fish species on Earth have
an operculum and swim bladder.
The hominin group includes ________.
Homo sapiens and several extinct human relatives.
In 1997, scientists discovered a new species of primate, only 10 cm long, with widely spaced nostrils that open outward and a long prehensile tail. This animal would be a(n) _____.
New World monkey
Which statement best summarizes the difference between ectothermic and endothermic organisms?
Ectotherms absorb external heat, but endotherms use metabolic heat to maintain a warm, steady body temperature.
Which statement is true?
A line of lobe-finned fishes gave rise to tetrapods, and a line of tetrapods gave rise to modern amphibians.
Prehensile tails are found among
New World monkeys.
Which best describes current evidence and ideas about the evolution of the first tetrapods? The picture below represents an early tetrapod.
There is an increasingly complete series of transitional fossils joining lobe-finned fishes to fully terrestrial tetrapods. Currently, it appears that the first tetrapods were fish that lived in shallow water and used their limbs to lift themselves out of the water and gulp air.
Of all of the chordate groups, why are there only two amniote groups (reptilia and mammalia)?
Amniotes are the only chordate group that has successfully survived the transition to land.
The two distinguishing features of vertebrates are the presence of _____.
a skull and backbone
Which of the following statements best fits the current evidence about the origin and spread of modern humans?
Homo sapiens evolved from an ancestral Homo species in Africa and then migrated elsewhere.
Which of the following traits tend(s) to tie amphibians to wet or moist habitats?
moist skin and soft, unprotected eggs laid in water
According to analysis of __________, all humans share a common female ancestor who lived about 180,000 years ago.
Human skin color differences appear to be _____.
primarily an adaptation to latitudinal differences in the intensity of solar radiation
The two major groups of anthropoids are __________.
monkeys and apes
________ appears to have been the first hominin to use stone tools.
Compared to other hominins, modern Homo sapiens display a particular ability for
The Salalizard is a fictional vertebrate that lives in the forest and appears to be half salamander and half lizard. You are not allowed to collect any wild animals, so you decide to take a video of it to show your colleagues. What behavior best distinguishes the Salalizard as either a salamander (amphibian) or a lizard (reptile)?
where it reproduces
A prehensile tail is like an opposable thumb in that both
are used for grasping.
Human DNA and chimpanzee DNA differ by
The two distinguishing features of mammals are the presence of _____.
hair and mammary glands
Recall that the cuticle seals plant surfaces and helps plants conserve water, and the seed helps derived plant groups to reproduce effectively on dry land. The analogous adaptations in reptiles are ________ (analogous to the cuticle) and ________ (analogous to the seed).
scales; the amniotic egg
Considering the adaptive nature of human skin color differences, what kinds of health problems might you expect in modern humans?
You might predict Vitamin D deficiency in dark-skinned Africans that move to Norway.
The duck-billed platypus and other monotremes differ from other mammals in that they
Suppose a fossil was found and identified to be a species approximately 3.5 million years old. This fossil could be a representative of which species?
Kenyanthropus platyops or Australopithecus afarensis
Compared to other primates, anthropoids have
a fully opposable thumb.
A key derived character of sharks and rays that distinguishes them from ray-finned fishes is
a skeleton made of cartilage
Evidence from genetic and fossil analysis indicates that Neanderthals __________.
lived throughout Europe and coexisted with modern humans
Ancient human migrations can be better understood by analyzing genetic characteristics of modern populations; elements transmitted exclusively through maternal lines and elements transmitted exclusively through paternal lines are particularly useful. In humans, __________ are exclusively paternally inherited, and __________ are exclusively maternally inherited.
Y chromosomes, mitochondria
Light skin is most adaptive in northern latitudes because
light skin in northern latitudes allows adequate folate for fetal development.
Apes (including humans) and monkeys are classified together as __________.
Molecular evidence suggests that _____.
chimpanzees, bonobos, and gorillas are more closely related to humans than they are to orangutans or gibbons
Jaws appear to have evolved from
skeletal rods that supported gill slits near the mouth.
According to this figure, which group includes the closest living relatives to tetrapods such as amphibians, reptiles, and mammals?
Most recent evidence suggests that humans __________.
are part of a single clade that arose from an African ancestor and then spread worldwide
Which trend is true of the evolution of humans from australopiths to Homo habilis to H. ergaster to H. erectus to H. sapiens?
increased brain size and tool use
How do lampreys and hagfishes differ from all other extant vertebrates?
They lack jaws.
Recently, an international team of scientists discovered a new and endangered gibbon species in a South-Asian jungle. What is typical about this find?
Often newly discovered animal species are listed as endangered soon after they are discovered.
Like many insects, some amphibians undergo ________ in their life cycle as they have distinct larval and adult stages.
A horror movie features a giant man-eating cylindrical sea creature with a slashing tongue armed with toothlike structures. It attaches to victims and ties itself into a knot, then pushes the knot snugly against the victim for leverage. When attacked, it releases huge quantities of transparent slime. This monster is a giant _____.
Which characteristic of vertebrates is associated with colonization of land?
As an example of the relationship between structure and function the forward-facing eyes shared by all primates help them in
depth perception as they navigate through forests.
Which lists the three major groups of primates in the proper order from earliest to most recent?
lemurs, lorises, and bush babies; tarsiers; and anthropoids
The kangaroo is an example of a _____ mammal.
Human skin color likely represents a locally adapted compromise between
the need to block UV radiation that destroys folate and the need to synthesize vitamin D.
Neanderthals are best described as
a hominin that colonized Europe independently of Homo sapiens and that interbred with modern humans.
Which is the first distinctively hominin trait to appear in the fossil record?
upright walking (bipedalism)
Which statement best describes the current scientific view of birds?
a group of feathered, endothermic dinosaurs
Recommended textbook explanations
Campbell Biology: Concepts and Connections
Eric J. Simon, Jane B. Reece, Jean L. Dickey, Kelly A. Hogan, Martha R. Taylor
Brock Biology of Microorganisms
David A. Stahl, John M Martinko, Michael T. Madigan
Elevate Middle Grade Science 2019 Physical Digital Courseware 7 Year
Sets found in the same folder
ch 17 plants
biology exam 3: chapter 17: fungi
Chapter Four: Mastering Bio Practice Quiz Questions
mastering biology ch 12
Sets with similar terms
Chap. 19 Org. Bio.
Bio 103 Chapter 19
Chapter 19 The Evolution of Vertebrate Diversity
Bio Test: Primate Diversity and Human Evolution
Other sets by this creator
Biology 1010 Ch. 16
Biology 1010 Ch. 15
Other Quizlet sets
EXAM 6: AFFERENT (Visual, auditory, taste)
Historical climate chages
Decades of Change Study Guide 1950s
Population Ecology Chapter 44