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energy storage, structural elements, cell recognition and adhesion, covalently attached to proteins/lipids to act as signals for cellular localization and metabolism

What are the four main functions of carbohydrate polymers?

next to last

Which carbon is the "penultimate"?


D-Glyceraldehyde's penultimate carbon will have an OH group to the ____


L-Glyceraldehyde's penultimate carbon will have an OH group to the ____


The "D/L" designation is based on which carbon?


the term for a molecule that differs only in the configuration around one carbon atom


Which monosaccharide is an important component of nucleic acids?


Which monosaccharide is a blood sugar?


Which monosaccharide is a fruit sugar?


alcohol + aldehyde --> ?


alcohol + ketone --> ?


In forming cyclic structures, the carbonyl carbon joins to the OH of which carbon?


The carbonyl carbon bonds with the OH of the C5 carbon and becomes ______ , meaning it is now chiral


In a cyclic structure, the "alpha" designation is given if the OH of the anomeric carbon is ____


In a cyclic structure, the "beta" designation is given if the OH of the anomeric carbon is _____


At equilibrium, what designation of anomeric carbons make up the 2/3 majority?


glucose forms six-membered ring compounds called _______


fructose forms five-membered ring compounds called _______


For chiral carbons, OH groups maintain orientation when going from linear to cyclic. For example, OH groups pointing to the left in a linear structure will point ____ in a cyclic structure


how many carbons would a hexose have?

three carbon molecule with aldehyde group

Describe an aldotriose molecule

five carbon molecule with a ketone group

Describe a ketopentose


For reducing sugars, which carbon is necessary since it is oxidized in the process?

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