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23 terms

CHE 319 Monosaccharides

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energy storage, structural elements, cell recognition and adhesion, covalently attached to proteins/lipids to act as signals for cellular localization and metabolism
What are the four main functions of carbohydrate polymers?
next to last
Which carbon is the "penultimate"?
right
D-Glyceraldehyde's penultimate carbon will have an OH group to the ____
left
L-Glyceraldehyde's penultimate carbon will have an OH group to the ____
penultimate
The "D/L" designation is based on which carbon?
epimer
the term for a molecule that differs only in the configuration around one carbon atom
ribose
Which monosaccharide is an important component of nucleic acids?
glucose
Which monosaccharide is a blood sugar?
fructose
Which monosaccharide is a fruit sugar?
hemiacetal
alcohol + aldehyde --> ?
hemiketal
alcohol + ketone --> ?
C5
In forming cyclic structures, the carbonyl carbon joins to the OH of which carbon?
anomeric
The carbonyl carbon bonds with the OH of the C5 carbon and becomes ______ , meaning it is now chiral
down
In a cyclic structure, the "alpha" designation is given if the OH of the anomeric carbon is ____
up
In a cyclic structure, the "beta" designation is given if the OH of the anomeric carbon is _____
beta
At equilibrium, what designation of anomeric carbons make up the 2/3 majority?
pyranoses
glucose forms six-membered ring compounds called _______
furanoses
fructose forms five-membered ring compounds called _______
up
For chiral carbons, OH groups maintain orientation when going from linear to cyclic. For example, OH groups pointing to the left in a linear structure will point ____ in a cyclic structure
six
how many carbons would a hexose have?
three carbon molecule with aldehyde group
Describe an aldotriose molecule
five carbon molecule with a ketone group
Describe a ketopentose
anomeric
For reducing sugars, which carbon is necessary since it is oxidized in the process?