90 terms

AP Europe Period 1 Review: 1450-1648

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humanists
European scholars, writers, and teachers associated with the study of the humanities (grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history, languages, and moral philosophy), influential in the fifteenth century and later. Explored human endeavors in their art, literature, and poetry.
Brunelleschi
The artist and architect credited with discovering linear perspective
Leonardo da Vinci
A well known Italian Renaissance artist, architect, musician, mathematician, engineer, and scientist. Known for the Mona Lisa.
Michelangelo
(1475-1564) An Italian sculptor, painter, poet, engineer, and architect. Famous works include the mural on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, and the sculpture of the biblical character David.
Raphael
(1483-1520) Italian Renaissance painter; he painted frescos, his most famous being The School of Athens.
Northern Renaissance
Cultural and intellectual movement of northern Europe, began later than the Italian Renaissance (circa 1450), centered in France, Low Countries, England, and Germany, featured a greater emphasis on religion than the Italian Renaissance
Christian Humanism
associated with northern Europe; studied classical texts; gave humanism a Christian context; committed to religious piety and institutional reform; Desiderius Erasmus
Bacon
This scientist spread the word about the experimental method and formalized the empirical method and combined his thinking with Descartes to form the scientific method
Descartes
Wrote Discourse on Method. Believed in Cartesian Dualism where the body can be doubted, but the mind can't so the two must be radically different. Used deductive reasoning (reasoning through previously know facts) to come to conclusions.
Galileo
(1564-1642) An Italian who provided more evidence for heliocentrism and questioned if the heavens really were perfect. He invented a new telescope, studied the sky, and published what he discovered. Because his work provided evidence that the Bible was wrong he was arrested and ended up on house arrest for the rest of his life.
Copernicus
A Polish astronomer who put forth the theory that the sun is at rest near the center of the universe, and that the earth spinning on its axis once daily, revolves annually around the sun. This is called heliocentric, or sun centered system
Newton
(1642-1727) An English natural philosopher who studied at Cambridge and eventually developed the laws of movement found among the bodies of Earth. Spent his life dedicated to the study of mathematics (created calculus) and optics. Published Principia Mathematica and discovered the law of universal gravitation.
Harvey
Described the circulation of the blood through veins and arteries.
Pico della Mirandola
Wrote On the Dignity of Man which stated that man was made in the image of God before the fall and as Christ after the Resurrection. Man is placed in-between beasts and the angels. He also believed that there is no limits to what man can accomplish.
Machiavelli
Renaissance writer; formerly a politician, wrote The Prince, a work on ethics and government, describing how rulers maintain power by methods that ignore right or wrong; accepted the philosophy that "the end justifies the means."
Jean Bodin
This was the man who created the theory of sovereignty in which a state becomes sovereign by claiming a monopoly over the instruments of justice

french lawyer; theorist of absolutism; sovereignty can't be divided ---> must remain w/an individual; insisted monarch had "absolute power" over people
Castiglione
He knew that the ideal man was many talented, including artistic, intellectual and physical skills. Wrote regarding manners. Wrote Book of the Courtier
Guttenberg
This man is credited with inventing the printing press in Europe:
Kepler
(1571-1630) Assistant to Tycho Brahe who believed in the Copernican view. He continued Brahe's observations and created three laws of planetary motion published between 1609 and 1619. They provided mathematical backing for heliocentrism and suggested that the planets orbits were ellipses.
New Monarchs
(Term) 15th-century European rulers who unified their respective nations, creating stable and centralized governments. Especially known for limiting feudal aristocracy, promoting trade and exploration, and reinforcing religious unity. Key new monarchs include Charles VII, Louis XI, Henry VII, and Ferdinand and Isabella.
Concordat of Bologna
Treaty under which the French Crown recognized the supremacy of the pope over a council and obtained the right for the government to nominate all French bishops and abbots (1516)
Court of the Star Chamber
a judicial innovation of Henry VII of England, designed to curb the independence of the nobility, whereby criminal charges brought against the nobility were judged by a court of the king's own councilors
Edict of Nantes
1598 grant of tolerance in France to French Protestants after lengthy civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. Granted the Huguenots liberty of conscience and worship.
The Prince
A book wrote by Niccolo Machiavelli in 1513 about the imperfect conduct of humans and says how a ruler is able to keep power and manage to keep it disregarding enemies.
Peace of Westphalia
(1648) is the collective name for two treaties ending the Thirty Years' War that were signed by the Holy Roman Empire, minor German states, Spain, France, Sweden, and the Dutch Republic. It confirmed the principle of "cuius regio eius religio" (that a ruler's religion determined that of his country) introduced by the Peace of Augsburg, but mandated relative tolerance of other (Christian) faiths. It adjusted the borders of German states and strengthened their princes with respect to the Emperor and transferred most of Lorraine and some of Alsace to France.
politiques
Rulers who put political necessities above personal beliefs. For example, both Henry IV of France and Elizabeth I of England subordinated theological controversies in order to achieve political unity.
balance of power
distribution of military and economic power that prevents any one nation from becoming too strong
Thirty Years' War
(1618-48) the last great religious war fought in Europe brought into France by Richelieu. began in Bohemia when protestant nobles revolted against the newly crowned Catholic emperor Ferdinand II when he revoked their religious freedoms. ended with Protestant-French victory by the Peace of Westphalia. reshaped the religious and political map of central Europe. (While it is in the "Wars of Religion" unit, it should be remembered that it was as much about political power. For example, the fight between the French and the Habsburgs was between two Catholic powers.)
baroque
An artistic style of the seventeenth century characterized by complex forms, bold ornamentation, and contrasting elements. More often found in Catholic countries as a statement against the Reformation.
Mannerism
Artistic movement against the Renaissance ideals of symmetry, balance, and simplicity; went against the perfection the High Renaissance created in art. Used elongated proportions, twisted poses and compression of space.
English Civil War
Conflict from 1640 to 1660; featured religious disputes mixed with constitutional issues concerning the powers of the monarchy; ended with restoration of the monarchy in 1660 following the execution of the previous king
James I
This Scottish ruler became the English king as well once Elizabeth died. He inherited a country that was in debt, as well as in mourning for their highly-idealized former queen. He was generous with favors but Scottish and English differences made it impossible for him to gain anyone's favor. He also would have preferred to be a divine right monarch.
Charles I
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1625-1649). His power struggles with Parliament resulted in the English Civil War (1642-1648) in which Charles was defeated. He was tried for treason and beheaded in 1649
Oliver Cromwell
English military, political, and religious figure who led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War (1642-1649) and called for the execution of Charles I. As lord protector of England (1653-1658) he ruled as a military dictator.
Martin Luther
(1483-1546) a German monk who, in 1517, took a public stand against the sale of indulgences by nailing his 95 Theses to the door of the castle church in Wittenburg; he believed that people did not need priests to interpret the Bible for them; his actions began the Reformation
John Calvin
A French theologian who established a theocracy in the Geneva and is best known for his theory of predestination. Bible is the sole word of God. Helped create the protestant work ethic. Wrote Institutes of the Christian Religion (1509-1564)
Anabaptists
A Protestant sect that believed only adults could make a free choice regarding religion; they also advocated pacifism, separation of church and state, and democratic church organization.
Catholic Reformation
16th Century. Partly in response to the Protestant Reformation, Roman Catholic authorities undertook a reform effort within their own church. To some extent, their efforts represented a reaction to Protestant success. Roman Catholic authorities sought to define points of doctrine so as to clarify the differences between the Roman and Protestant churches. They also attempted to persuade the Protestants to return to the Catholic church.
Council of Trent
Meeting of Catholic leaders that begin and Trent, Italy, and 1545; Pope Paul III summoned it to combat corruption in the church and fight Protestantism; reformed abuses in the church, but kept pope as head and core beliefs. The council continued its work in more than 20 sessions over the next 18 years.
Jesuit Order
This order was founded by Ignatius of Loyola. They set up schools to teach the Catholic belief. The Catholic faith spread by this to Africa and Asia.
The establishment of the religious order was part of the counter-Reformation.
Peace of Augsburg
(1555) Document in which Charles V recognized Lutheranism as a legal religion in the Holy Roman Empire. The faith of the prince determined the religion of his subjects. The prince could choose Catholicism or Lutheranism. (This would be an issue later when Calvinism became a more significant religion.)
Henry VIII
(1491-1547) King of England from 1509 to 1547; his desire to annul his marriage led to a conflict with the pope, England's break with the Roman Catholic Church, and its embrace of Protestantism. Henry established the Church of England in 1532. He subordinated the Church to the state. The Act of Supremacy is one example when he made himself the Head of the Church of England, so that he was the head of the state and the head of the church.
Elizabeth I
(1558-1603) Queen who established compromise between Protestants and Catholics and shaped the Church of England, led the defeat of the Spanish Armada, ruled during England's Golden Age (age of Shakespeare)
Huguenots, Puritans, Nobles in Poland
Examples of religious conflicts that were based on challenging the monarch's attempts to control religious institutions.
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Catherine de Medici encouraged her son to order the killing of French Huguenots. This was an example of tensions between a monarch and rival nobles that also had a religious component. It was neither a wholly religious nor wholly political conflict.
Henry IV
(1589-1610) - Formerly Henry of Navarre; ascended the French throne as a convert to Catholicism. Survived St. Bartholomew Day, signed Edict of Nantes, quoted as saying "Paris is worth a mass." He is an example of a politique. He put the needs of the state ahead of any personal religious convictions.
Goal of Habsburg rulers during the Wars of religion
Restore Catholic unity across Europe. Examples:
Charles V
Philip II
Catholic Spain
Protestant England
France, Sweden, Denmark in the 30 Years' War
States that exploited religious conflicts to promote political and economic interests
France (after Edict of Nantes), The Netherlands, Poland
States that allowed religious pluralism in order to maintain domestic peace.
mercantilism
An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
Portuguese areas of commercial trade
along the African coast
South Asia
East Asia
South America (Brazil)
Areas of Spanish trade and colonial dominance
the Americas
the Caribbean
the Pacific
Spain was a dominant state in Europe due to its trade network and colonial empire
Competition for trade led to
conflicts and rivalries among European powers.
Isabella d'Este
First Lady of the World. She became regent after her husband was captured, was an excellent leader, wrote hundreds of letters, and was a great patron of the arts.
Vasari
(1511-1574) wrote The Lives of Artists; contemporary Renaissance art historian
Erasmus
Dutch Humanist and friend of Sir Thomas More. Perhaps the most intellectual man in Europe and widely respected. Believed the problems in the Catholic Church could be fixed; did not suport the idea of a Reformation. Wrote Praise of Folly
Mary I
Queen of England. Daughter of Catherine and Henry VIII, tried to return England to Catholicism, killed many Protestant heretics, married Philip II of Spain.
Zwingli
Leader of Swiss Reformation. Agreed to disagree with Luther about communion (at Marburg). He thought it was only a symbol. Found on the battlefield of the Swiss Civil War wounded and the Lutherans found him, cut him up into little pieces, then burn them and scattered the ashes over the land. Luther said Zwingli got what he deserved.
Charles V
Holy Roman Emperor and Carlos I of Spain, tried to keep Europe religiously united, inherited Spain, the Netherlands, Southern Italy, Austria, and much of the Holy Roman Emperor from his grandparents, he sought to stop Protestantism and increase the power of Catholicism. He allied with the pope to stamp out heresy and maintain religious unity in Europe. He was preoccupied with struggles with Turkey and France and could not solely focus on the rise of Protestantism in Germany.
Ivan IV
"The Terrible"; Russian ruler; cruel and tyrannical; murdered nobility; extremely paranoid (killed his own son); taxed people heavily; took title of "czar"
Age of Exploration
Time period during the 15th and 16th centuries when Europeans searched for new sources of wealth and for easier trade routes to China and India. Resulted in the discovery of North and South America by the Europeans.

Included people like Columbus, Cortez and Pizarro.
Bartolome de las Casas
First bishop of Chiapas, in southern Mexico. He devoted most of his life to protecting Amerindian peoples from exploitation. His major achievement was the New Laws of 1542, which limited the ability of Spanish settlers to compel Amerindians to labor.
Domestic system
Early industrial labor system in which workers produced goods at home. Also known as the cottage industry or putting out system.
Philip II
(1527-1598) King of Spain from 1556 to 1598. Led the Counter Reformation by persecuting Protestants in his holdings (esp. Netherlands). Also sent the Spanish Armada against England.
Columbian Exchange
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages.
Chain of Being
A hierarchical arrangement of creation with god at the too, followed by nine orders of angels, then humans (men over women, rich over poor) then animals (mammals over reptiles, reptiles over fish), then plants and so on down to evil (satan) or nothingness. This idea expressed Europeans idea of how the world was ordered from the Middle Ages through the 18th century or so
Gustavus Adolphus
Swedish Lutheran king who won victories for the German Protestants in the Thirty Years' War and lost his life in one of the battles (1594-1632)
Amsterdam
Banking center of Europe, experienced golden age
Golden Age of Spain
This country had an immense influx of wealth, great artists like Velazquez and El Greco and writers like Cervantes and Lope de Vega.
witchcraft
Many people (mostly women) were accused of this and burned at the stake in medieval and early modern Europe.
Petrarch
"Father of Humanism." studied classical Greek and Latin. introduced emotion in "Sonnets to Laura"
Saint Thomas More
condemned to death by King Henry VIII of England for not accepting him as head of the Church.
Ficino
dedicated his life to translating Plato and creating Neoplatonism
Lorenzo Valla
Used the study of language to prove that the "Donation of Constantine" was false. The donation had supposedly given the pope secular powers over the West. Gave fuel to those who criticized the church.
1527
The Sack of Rome ends the Renaissance. Done by Charles V German and Spanish mercenaries.
Savonarola
Dominican monk who established a theocracy in Florence while the French were in Italy
Medicis
A powerful banking family who ruled Florence during the Italian Renaissance. Patrons of the arts and humanists.
Ferdinand & Isabella
New monarchs of Spain. United the provinces of Spain with their marriage. Funded exploration of the new world.
Treaty of Lodi
1454: provided balance of power in Italian city-states: diplomacy
Marburg Colloquy
A meeting between Luther and Zwingli to solve their dispute between Communion. Did not come to an agreement.
Mary Stuart
Queen of Scots; Catholic extremists hoped to replace Elizabeth I with her
John Knox
Dominated the movement for reform in Scotland. Had been taught in Geneva by Calvin.
Cardinal Richelieu
Chief minister of France helped institute absolutist practices in France. Persecuted Protestants at home but supported them in the 30 Years War against the Habsburgs.
Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre
1572...thousands of French Huguenots and other Protestants killed at wedding of Henry of Navarre
Union of Utrecht
1579 The 7 Northern Dutch provinces allied against Spain & led by William of Orange (the Silent)
Treaty of Tordesillas
1494 agreement by the pope splitting new world lands between Spain and Portugal
Societal trends in Eastern Europe
More inclined to have serfdom still. Families were large with extended family groups. Marriages were at an early age.
Societal trends in Western Europe
Less inclined to have serfdom. Families revolved around the nuclear family. Marriages were in the mid-late 20s.
Early capitalism
Joint stock companies, growth of banking, insurance companies, desire to move away from government controlled economy.
Diet of Worms
Meeting of the leadership of the Holy Roman Empire during which Luther refused to recant his beliefs