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Terms in this set (65)
Decrease function of what organ would have the greatest effect on biotransformation of most drugs?
The percentage of total dose that ultimately reaches the blood stream is called
If you are instructed to give a medication I.P. you inject the medication
Into the abdominal cavity
What is the ratio between the toxic dose and therapeutic dose of a drug used as a measure of the relative safety of the drug for particular treatment
Intradermal injections are used primarily for
This organ does not facilitate the elimination of drugs
When a drug is said to have a narrow therapeutic range it means that
It's effective and toxic doses are close to eachother
A drug given by this route reaches it's peak plasma concentration the fastest
Which tissue is not a normal site for drugs to accumulate to be released later, thereby prolonging the effect of the drug
What organ blocks the entrance of many drugs because of a barrier similar to the blood-brain barrier?
Each drug approved for use in food-producing animals has a time period given on the label between the last dose and when the animal can be slaughtered for food or when the milk can be sold. What is this period called?
Sometimes drugs are administered in a large, single dose and then given as a series of smaller doses. what is the first dose called?
The movement of a drug from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration is known as
acidic drugs exist mostly in what form in an acidic environment?
Which animal has a greater volume of distribution? A 7% dehydrated cat or a normal 12 lb cat
normal 12lb cat
A dog has decreased renal perfusion. what will this do to the blood levels of a drug excreted through the kidneys?
It will increase
What is the complex sequence of events that occurs after a drug is administered to a patient
Drug molecules must be in what form to pass through the cell membrane?
Parenteral drugs are administered
Conjugation is one of the best ways to remove lipid soluble drugs
Some drugs are eliminated through the mammary glands and into milk
In production animals, drugs that appear in meat or milk are called residues
Animals with hepatic disorders are more likely to have impaired ability to biotransformation medication
The movement of a drug molecule into a compartment where it changes from a lipophilic to a hydrophilic state and stays in that compartment is known as ion trapping
Drug A is an acid drug, it is more likely to be in a _____ form when placed in a very acidic environment
What will ionized drug molecules dissolve more readily in?
Which should be more readily absorbed from the stomach (PH of 2-3): An acid drug or an alkaline drug, both with similar pKa?
Increase or decrease?
The half-life for a drug is extended
Increase or decrease? The metabolism of a drug has been accelerated by exposure to phenobarital
Increase or decrease? An hypoproteinemic animal is given a drug that is normally highly protein bound
Increase or decrease? The volume of distribution for a drug is
Movement of drug molecules from the site of administration to the systemic circulation
A drug that produces a cellular effect; has an intrinsic ability
Drug that when combined with the receptor produces an opposing effect
Degree to which an administered drug is being absorbed
Drug metabolism; alteration of a drug
Compound used as a drug that physically combines with other ions
Rate at which a drug leaves the body; AKA half life of elimination
Dissolving; critical step in absorption of PO drugs
Discharge from the body of indigestible materials and waste products of metabolism
Act, process, or function of excretion or discharge
The liver removes so much drug that little reaches the systemic circulation
First pass effect
PH number where the ratio of ionized to non-ionized drug molecules is 1:1
When more drug molecules are available for transport than available carriers
An effect of a drug on a cell
"Windows" or small gaps in capillaries that allow water and drug molecules to move in and out
Elimination of drugs by the liver; biliary excretion
Fat loving; molecules ability to distribute in phospholipids and the cell membrane
Altered drug molecule that is a result of biotransformation
Study of how the drug produces it's effect on the body
Study of how a drug moves into, through, and out of the body
Drug that requires biotransformation to become active
Specifically shaped proteins located on the cells surface that only binds with itself
Ideal range of drug concentration within the body
Foreign substances not produced in metabolism
Specialized tuft of capillaries in the nephron of the kidney
Via a body opening
Biotransformation enzyme system in the liver
Mixed function oxidase
A drug concentration achieved I the body thru IV infusion; remains constant until stop
The concentration of drug in the circulatory system
Based on blood perfusion, which body compartment will get adequate drug levels more quickly
Which food-producing animal drug has the shorter withdrawal time?
Drug A with a half- of 60 minutes
Drug B with a half-life of 120 minutes
Giving fluids to an animal will increase the excretion of the drug
To increase the rate of absorption of a drug from an IM injection you could
Apply heat to injection site
Massage the area of injection
What form should drugs be in to be reabsorbed, passively, by the Loop of Henle back into the systemic circulation?
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