Fair: festivals and events are public celebrations that are staged all over the world
• large and extend over a long pd of time
• enrich our lives and provide interesting career opportunities in such fields as event management
Amusement Parks: generic term for a collection of usually rides or other forms of entertainment attractions, for the purpose of entertaining large groups of people
• Interchangeable with theme parks
Gambling: first legalized in 1931 in Nevada.
• Industry includes land-based and riverboat casinos, card rooms, charitable games, lottery-operated games, and greyhound and horse races.
• Billions of dollars are wagered, or bet, on games or races every year.
• Career opportunities, hotels, convention and expositions industry, foodservice, transportations, constructions, and other segments
• A number of Native American tribes ad several economically depressed areas have used gaming entertainment as a means of improving their economies. More retirees gamble for entertainment purpose.
International Association of Amusement Parks: founded in 1918. Largest international trade association for permanently situated amusement facilities worldwide.
• represents more than 4,500 facilities, supplier and individual members from more then 90 countries
Mardis Graw: began more than 100 years ago, as a carnival and has evolved into a world-renowned party. Festival in New Orleans, that is the most flamboyant of all festivals and takes place in Jan, Feb, March.
• Online Reservations:
o Revolutionized airline reservations
o Travelers can quickly obtain quotes (e.g. Expedia, Travelocity, America Online, Yahoo... )
o Many airlines actually reward customers for booking through their company website.
o Travelocity is one of the world's leading online travel agencies
• Global Distribution Systems-- Connects travel agents to airlines, hotels, car rental companies, railroads, tour operators, etc
• Hotel Reservations:
o Most major hotel chains are included in some computer reservation systems
Hotels assign a number of rooms for sale to a GDS, and as a room is sold, it is subtracted from the inventory
o MICROS Systems - provides enterprise applications for the hospitality and retail industries worldwide
• Fairs usually larger and extend over a long period of time. Event may range from local street festivals and fairs through county, state, or provincial fairs all the way up to the World Fairs.
o They enrich our lives and provide interesting career opportunities (e.g., event management)
• Amusement parks a large outdoor area with fairground rides, shows, refreshments, games of chance or skill, and other entertainments
o For the collection of rides or other forms of entertainment attractions for the purpose of entertaining large groups
o Today, the terms amusement parks and theme parks are often used interchangeably
• Gambling play games of chance for money; bet; to take risky action in the hope of a desired result
o A number of Native American tribe's ad several economically depressed areas have used gaming entertainment as a means of improving their economies.
o More than 30 states have casinos and almost every state has legalized some form of gambling.
o Career opportunities, hotels, convention and expositions industry, foodservice, transportations, constructions, and other segments
o People gamble and call it a night on the town.
o More retirees gamble for entertainment purpose
o The availability of gaming entertainment has expanded considerably
• International Association of Amusement Parks and Attractions (IAAPA) largest international trade association for permanently situated amusement facilities worldwide. (not the temporary one in county fair)
• Mardi Gras refer to events of the carnival celebrations, beginning on or after the Epiphany or Kings Day and culminating on the day before Ash Wednesday
• French word for Fat Tuesday (referring to the practice of the last night of eating richer, fatty foods before the ritual fasting of the Lenten season)
o New Orleans, Louisiana
o Celebrations are concentrated for about two weeks before and through Fat Tuesday (Mardi Gras in French), the day before Ash Wednesday.
o Usually there is one major parade each day; many days have several large parades, custom contest, and concerts.
o Many tourists center their Mardi Gras season activities on Bourbon Street and the French Quarter.
o Inexpensive strings of beads and toys have been thrown from floats to parade-goers since at least the late 19th century.
• Travel Agent a well-traveled professional who is up to date on schedules, accommodations, entertainment, and costs. They are aware of current trends and offer the best service.
o an important part of travel distribution system
o act as a consultant and sales intermediary for airlines, hotels, railroads, car rental companies, cruise ships, etc
o agent books tours and may package some tours for the agency's own account
o responsible to the client and in a special relationship, to the carriers and other suppliers from which they receive a commission
o commissions were the main source of income for travel agents. However, this changed a few years ago
• Tour Wholesalers Package tours for a country or an area-- Sell them to retail travel agents
o May have offices in other countries or sell directly to the public.
o May represent an area if market does not justify a complete office.
o Best-known are Thomas Cook and American Express
• Yield Management Set of strategies to enable capacity-constrained service industries to realize optimum revenue from operations.
o The core concept of yield management is to provide the right service to the right customer at the right time for the right price.
o Competition has a major influence on airfares
o System on planes; if more seats are sold than usual, discount seats are cut back. If fewer seats are sold, more discounts are added
• Tour Operators Companies that arrange every aspect of a travel package
o They bring together all the elements of a trip, including airplane reservations, hotel reservations, transportation, entertainment, and more.
o They sell all these components together in one package. Travelers may deal directly with a tour company or may book tours through a travel agent
o Today, there is a great deal of overlapping between the services of travel agents and tour operators
o Companies such as American Express perform both services, and many independent agencies put together their own tour packages for their customers
• Travel Management Corporation/Department the function of managing a company's strategic approach to travel (travel policy), the negotiations with all vendors, day-to-day operation of the corporate travel program, traveler safety & security, credit-card management and T&E data management
• Escorted tours are all inclusive, and every detail is handled by an experienced tour director who travels with the group
1. Assessing the potential
a. Evaluate your assets in these five areas:
i. Attractions: Listing the registered sites or eligible sites.
ii. Visitor Services: places to eat, park, sleep, go to the restroom, get gasoline, shopping, touring etc.
iii. Organizational Capabilities: identify the local organizations involving in tourism, preservation, humanities, museums, arts, and economic development for potential support.
iv. Protection: identify the full array of measures needed to protect the value of historic, cultural and natural assets.
v. Marketing: assessing all current marketing related activities
2. Planning and organizing-- Make good use of human and financial resources
a. Gain the support of local business people—of bankers, people in the travel industry, owners of restaurants and stores, operators of hotels and motels, etc.
b. Unite local government behind your efforts. From local government can come leadership, the establishment of arts and entertainment districts, preservation ordinances, design review boards, landmarks commissions, etc.
c. Seek the backing of service organizations with strong membership bases and good track records on community projects.
- A good financial plan takes both hard and soft costs into account
o Hard costs, such as the cost of restoring a historic building, are the most obvious and easiest to estimate.
o Just as important are the soft—but real—costs of staffing your organization, of interpreting and maintaining local sites, and of marketing.
- Where can you look for funding?
o Local: Hold fundraising drives, assess membership dues, or arrange house tours, art fairs or other special activities.
o State: Your state may have funds for tourism, the arts, preservation, or economic development for which your organization could qualify.
o National: Foundations and corporations fund activities in their area of interest. Listings can be found on the Internet or in your local library.
- Once you have solid community support, it's time to organize
3. Preparing, protecting, and managing
a. Preparing for visitors means readying your historic resources by preserving their historical integrity, constructing new museums, and generally cleaning up your community—but it is also the time to figure out how you are going to tell your story and make your community hospitable to visitors.
b. To engage visitors in experiences they understand, learn from and respond to emotionally use these materials to interpret your resources: Signs, Brochures, Maps, and Videotapes.
c. Protecting: Developing a comprehensive preservation plan can provide overall guidance to help protect your historic structures. How?
i. Seeking the designation of historic resources and determining which designations bring restrictions and which do not.
ii. Using zoning to specify land uses and restrictions on the density of development near sensitive historic sites.
iii. Establishing design review ordinances that establish design guidelines so that renovations and new buildings will be compatible with neighboring historic structures and a design review board to administer the guidelines.
iv. Providing design assistance to people interested in rehabilitating their property.
v. Requiring demolition review so that property owners cannot abruptly tear down buildings that have historic significance.
vi. Developing a sign ordinance that regulates such matters as size, materials, illumination and placement of signs.
d. Managing: Set up a plan to improve roads, public facilities, police and fire protection, and other infrastructure that affect—and are affected by—tourism.
i. A plan to balance the "carrying capacity" of your area—its ability to host visitors without compromising service or overstraining resources.
4. Marketing for success
i. Reach the target market
ii. Seize opportunities to partner with local, regional, state, or national groups
b. Marketing plan components:
i. Public relations
ii. Advertising and graphic materials
c. Public relations include:
i. Short spots on radio and television to publicize sites and events
ii. Documented success stories
iii. Organizing a photo/slide library
iv. Setting up a speaker's bureau
i. Can be costly, yet can be very beneficial
1. Creating convincing messages and supporting visuals
2. Appropriate media placement
3. Responding to inquiries
4. Measuring effectiveness
iii. When advertising:
1. It is important to match the message with the site and the budget allotted
a. Announcements can be put in newspapers and magazines, on radio and television, and on the Internet
b. Print advertising is generally less expensive than the electronic methods
2. "Co-op" advertising:
a. Good way to share ad campaign costs
i. Multiple partners cooperate to produce advertisements or special sections dedicated to their area
ii. Magazines and newspapers provide special rates for advertising participants
e. Develop various graphic materials communicating information
i. Brings forth to targeted audiences the image the community is trying to portray
ii. Color scheme or unique design element (logo) appears throughout material
1. Helps to define an image
i. Introduce visitors to the area's attractions
ii. Can also be used for other purposes (e.g., during trade shows or special events)
iii. Should be displayed at key locations
iv. If targeting a specific group, specialized brochures should be developed
g. Group Services Directory:
i. Provides information such as where to stay, eat, tours, etc.
1. Should be created and placed where visitors will see them
2. Should be legible and informative
3. Including international symbols
1. Special interest tours are package tours that are designed to fit the requirements of a particular group of travelers, for example, gourmets, adventure travelers, students, or art lovers. (may be escorted or un escorted)
2. Escorted tours all-inclusive, and every detail is handled by an experienced tour director who travels with the group.
3. Foreign independent and domestic independent tours more flexible tours enable the traveler to purchase an arranged package with transportation, transfers, sightseeing, accommodations, and usually some meals, but the tourist does not travel with a group led by a tour director.
a. Advantages: convenience and low price.
4. Group inclusive tours is usually composed of 15 or more people traveling together who are members of a club, business organization, or other affiliated group, and who have pooled their purchasing power to realize savings, particularly on transportation. These tours are offered to almost any destination.
• Natural—state parks, climate, islands, country sides, wildlife, city parks
• Cultural—architectural, arts, ballet, broadway, ethnic, museums, festivals, historic sites
• Recreational - biking, spas, hiking, sports
• Entertainment - amusement parks, movies, gaming
• Increasing importance of the internet in the industry, both as a source of travel-related information for the consumers, and as a means of actually booking trips
• More and more state and national parks have to finance themselves, that is, come up with money to pay for employees, maintenance, and so forth on their own
• Women are emerging as powerful consumers with a string impact on travel worldwide
• New form of tourism: more sustainable, environmentally and socially responsible, and characterized by flexibility and choice
• New type of consumer: more educated, experienced, independent, conservation minded, respectful of cultures, insistent on value for money