The History and Scope of Psychology
Terms in this set (90)
Researchers today can use technology such as fMRI scans to measure brain activity. Some researchers ask their subjects to describe elements of their experiences (e.g., sensations, images, feelings) while undergoing the scans. This _____ technique is similar to the methodology of _____.
In an experiment conducted by Professor Costa, the participants' first task is to press any button if they see a red light blink. For the second task, they press the rightmost button if they see a red light blink and the leftmost button if they see a green light blink. Professor Costa is studying the difference in the average lag times of these two tasks. This is similar to experiments conducted by which of these early psychologists?
Psychology is the scientific study of:
behavior and mental processes.
Your professor argues that children's innate concept of justice enables them to make distinctions between fair and unfair rules. This argument is most consistent with the views of the ancient philosopher _____.
Which school of psychology was most clearly concerned with the adaptive value of psychological processes?
To study inner sensations, images, and feelings, Edward Titchener used a research technique known as:
Which of the following individuals was most influenced by Charles Darwin?
Is alcohol abuse biologically determined or culturally influenced? This question is most relevant to the issue of:
nature versus nurture.
Compared with the structuralists, early behaviorists were much LESS likely to focus on the study of:
A focus on how behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures is most relevant to the _____ perspective.
The importance of current environmental influences on our growth potential was emphasized by:
The suggestion that psychology is less a set of facts than a method of evaluating ideas best highlights the _____ character of psychology.
Which early psychologist was most influenced by Charles Darwin?
James (or william james)
Professor Bashir studies how we process and store new memories. She is also interested in these memories influence mood and anxiety. Professor Bashir research focus is in _____ psychology.
_____ is the scientific study of human functioning, with the goals of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities to thrive.
It is 1965, and Professor Skinner is lecturing in your introductory course. He defines psychology as "the scientific study of _____."
Ivan Pavlov pioneered the study of _____.
A researcher who focuses on memory, perception, and problem solving is a _____ psychologist.
The growth potential of healthy people was emphasized by _____.
Prior to 1920, the field of psychology was defined as "the science of _____."
Psychology is the scientific study of _____ and mental processes.
The field of psychology is a collection of diverse subfields. Psychologists who conduct _____ research contribute by expanding the knowledge base of psychology, whereas others who conduct applied research explore practical problems.
An integrated explanation of human behavior provided by the neuroscience, cognitive, social-cultural, and other perspectives in psychology is most clearly provided by:
a biopsychosocial approach.
Dr. Hillburton has received approval for his research grant to study the effects of divorce on children ages 5-12 in terms of maturational milestones. Dr. Hillburton is most likely a _____ psychologist.
You are visiting a psychology research lab in which you observe the researchers asking 5-year-old children to solve a puzzle to explain how the puzzle was solved. The researchers tell you that the children's abilities and explanations will be compared to the abilities and explanations of 8 year olds. You are observing research being conducted by _____ psychologists.
Titchener is to _____ as Freud is to psychoanalysis.
_____ was the early school of psychology that employed the method of introspection.
Mr. Thomas owns a small manufacturing company that produces automobile brake lines. His company employs 163 people, but he has noticed that his productivity has declined despite having hired 10 more people over the last two months. Mr. Thomas realizes that he has to change his manufacturing set up in order to improve productivity. Mr. Thomas could receive help and assistance from a(n) _____ psychologist.
Which of the following is one area that generally does not do basic research?
The scientific study of people's behavioral responses to different situations was of special interest to:
B. F. Skinner.
Who was the first woman to earn a Ph.D. in psychology?
Margaret Floy Washburn
Edward Titchener was concerned primarily with the study of:
_____ might be considered an early representative of psychologists who today focus on the adaptive functions of behaviors and emotions (that is, those who study how behaviors and emotions appear to have helped our ancestors to survive).
Researchers continue to debate the origin of knowledge. Some believe that we are born with certain types of knowledge, while others believe that knowledge is gained through experience. Professor Risotto believes that children learn language through experiences. This approach is most similar to the ideas of:
The growth potential of people was emphasized by:
A researcher who focuses on links between the brain and the mind is a _____ psychologist.
Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and _____.
Understanding why a fear of darkness may have contributed to the survival of our human ancestors is most relevant to the _____ perspective.
The importance of current environmental influences on our growth potential was emphasized by _____ psychology.
Dr. Vieira, your introduction to psychology professor, explains that her research interest involves studying the processes involved in storing and retrieving newly learned information. She explains that she is particularly interested in how long it takes to store newly-learned mathematical problem solving. Deducing from her research you conclude that Dr. Vieira is a(n) _____ psychologist.
A study of the relationship between reasoning capacities and brain functions would be of most direct interest to:
Psychologists who today focus on the adaptive functions of behaviors and emotions (that is, those who study how behaviors and emotions appear to have helped our ancestors to survive) would likely consider _____ an early representative of their approach to psychology.
If a researcher focuses primarily on emotional responses, learned fears, and other learned expectations, he is focusing on:
You're having trouble coping with stressful life events, so you begin seeing a therapist. The therapist does not focus on your childhood or on any learned behaviors, but rather she emphasizes the importance of your need for love and acceptance. Which school of thought does she belong to?
Edward Titchener was concerned primarily with using introspection to search for the mind's _____ elements.
Which of the following statements is true about humanistic psychology?
Humanistic psychologists emphasize the importance of psychological growth and discount the importance of scientifically studying human behavior.
Dr. Robinson is interested in how stress affects the brain when one is trying to read facial expressions. She examines fMRI scans of individuals before and after stressful situations while looking at pictures of people displaying various facial expressions. Dr. Robinson's approach is part of the _____ perspective.
Structuralists introduced a research method called _____ to identify basic elements of the human mind.
Dr. Paul is a clinical psychologist and is treating a patient who he has diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia. Dr. Paul realizes that psychological therapy is not effective without medication. Dr. Paul will need to refer his patient to a _____.
The school of psychology called _____ was most clearly concerned with the adaptive value of psychological processes.
The scientific study of people's behavioral responses to different situations was of special interest to _____.
Dr. Garrett has been researching the ramifications of stress on the health of individuals experiencing chronic stress. He has done research on the cultural differences in stress, the history of stress and stress-related health issues in families, learned responses to stress, and the variations in the types of emotional expression in males and females. The research approach Dr. Garret is taking as he researches stress is a(n):
Unlike the structuralists, early behaviorists focused only on _____ behavior and dismissed any study of hidden mental processes.
Your introductory psychology professor, Dr. Ramirez, explains that his research consists of using psychological tests to measure introversion and extroversion traits in subjects. He explains he is interested in how these traits differ in men and women. After reading Chapter 1 of your text you deduce that Dr. Ramirez is a(n) _____ psychologist.
Which of the following is NOT an example of basic research?
Use of the principles of classical conditioning to create effective behavioral therapy techniques for the treatment of phobias.
The importance of inherited behavioral traits was most clearly highlighted by _____.
Psychologist _____ was concerned primarily with the discovery of the elements of mind.
In December 1879, _____ created the first psychology laboratory, in Germany.
A focus on how we encode, process, store, and retrieve information is most relevant to the _____ perspective.
Professor Chen believes that psychology should only involve studying observable behavior and concepts such as consciousness and mental processes are not concepts that can be the subject of scientific research, thus should not be studies in psychology. Professor Chen's views are most closely aligned to:
Watson is to behaviorism as Rogers is to _____ psychology.
Which of the following is NOT true of psychiatrists?
Psychiatrists must have a Ph.D. in psychology.
The field of psychology is a collection of diverse subfields. Psychologists who conduct basic research contribute by expanding the knowledge base of psychology, whereas others who conduct _____research explore practical problems.
Your professor directs a child and adolescent clinic that focuses on helping patients change their behavior, not on helping them understand themselves or satisfy their inner needs. Which perspective on psychology does your professor have?
Wilhelm Wundt was both a _____ and a philosopher.
In debating the origins of human traits, Plato and Aristotle disagreed about the relative importance of:
nature and nurture.
A unified understanding of explanations provided by the neuroscience, cognitive, social-cultural, and other psychological perspectives is most clearly provided by the _____ approach.
The importance of inherited behavioral traits was most clearly highlighted by:
Your psychology professor explains that his research interest involves using fMRI to investigate which areas of the brain are involved in processing new memories when one is learning a new language. Your professor's research is in the area called _____.
Watson is to _____ as Rogers is to _____.
behaviorism; humanistic psychology
Professor Harris, your psychology laboratory instructor, gives you an assignment in which you are to train a rat to press a lever for the reward of food. You are told to measure the progressive process of learning by recording the number of lever presses. You are instructed to only record observable behavior. You realize that your assignment is closely aligned with:
Researchers today can use technology such as fMRI scans to measure brain activity. Some researchers use the introspection technique with their subjects while obtaining the scans, which is similar to the methodology used by the early psychologist _____.
Which of the following statements about behaviorism is TRUE?
John B. Watson argued that consciousness was not a usable concept and considered consciousness to be a concept related to superstition and magic.
Professor Reed attempts to assess the relative contributions of heredity and home environment on children's susceptibility to depression. Her research best illustrates the concerns of the _____ perspective.
Focusing on the extent to which personality is influenced by motives outside our own awareness is most relevant to the _____ perspective.
The early school of psychology that employed the method of introspection was known as:
Edward Titchener used the research method known as _____.
_____ is pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base.
Edward Titchener used the research method known as:
_____ said that there is nothing in the mind that does not first come in from the external world through the senses.
One way to develop a complete picture of any given behavior or mental process is to incorporate an integrated viewpoint that examines biological, psychological, and social-cultural factors. This is also known as:
a biopsychosocial approach.
Wilhelm Wundt was both a _____ and a _____.
Inherited traits that increase the likelihood of reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to the generations that follow. This pattern can be explained by the principle of:
A study of the relationship between reasoning capacities and brain functions would be of most direct interest to _____.
The _____ perspective focuses on the extent to which behaviors and personality spring from drives and conflicts outside one's own awareness.
To study inner sensations, images, and feelings, Edward Titchener used a research technique known as _____.
_____ is a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical treatments as well as psychological therapy.
The nature-nurture debate has a long history in philosophy and psychology. For example, Plato suggested that some ideas and traits are inherited. This idea was later supported by the work of:
William and Joy are seeing Dr. Royce for marital issues. Neither one of them has any psychopathology, but they are interested in strengthening their relationship. Dr. Royce is most likely a _____ psychologist.
James Olds and Peter Milner located reward centers in the brain structure known as the
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