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IU Geography Midterm
Terms in this set (105)
What does it mean to say that places are interdependent?
Places are relying on one another for their existence.
What is a map projection?
A systematic transformation of the latitudes and longitudes of locations from the surface of a sphere
Why are maps projected?
To display the globe in a specific way
What aspects of the map become distorted during the projection process?
Area, direction, angle, and shape
What is the difference between site and situation? What do these terms mean?
The growth of a settlement is dependent on site and situation. The site is the place while the situation are the different variables.
What are the main branches of Geography?
Human, physical, and technical.
What does GIS stand for? What does it refer to?
Geographic Information System is a system that is designed to store geographical information.
What is a GPS and how does it work?
Global Positioning System is a way of determining one's location in relation to other places. It works by triangulating one's location with satellites orbiting the earth.
What are latitude and longitude? What are the names for the lines of 0° latitude and 0° longitude? Where are these 0° lines located?
Latitude is horizontal and longitude is vertical. 0° latitude is the Equator and 0° longitude is the the Prime Meridian. Equator is horizontal on the globe and the Prime Meridian is vertical.
What is the absolute distance?
Absolute distance is a distance described by a unit of measurement.
What is relative distance?
Relative distance is a distance described with the relation of another object.
What is the "first law of geography?"
Everything is related but things that closer are more related
How does this relate to the "friction of distance"?
The friction of distance states that as farther apart are less similar.
What are the different types of diffusion?
Hierarchical, contagious, and stimulus diffusion
What are ordinary landscapes?
Ordinary landscapes people create every day during their lives together.
What are symbolic landscapes?
Symbolic landscape are landscapes that has significant meaning beyond what it simply looks like due to cultural associations.
What is "spatial diffusion"?
A way that things spread over time.
How does "space" become "place"? What is a "sense of place"?
A space becomes a place when there is an emotional connection to it.
Who was Alexander von Humboldt? What were some of his contributions to the sciences of the future?
He is known as the father of geography.
What is regional geography?
Combines elements of both physical and human geography; unique combinations of environmental and human factors produce territories with distinctive landscapes and cultural attributes
What is another name for "regional geography"?
Explain the core/domain/sphere model and how it may be used to understand spatial relationships.
A model that shows the place where concentration of culture traits that characterizes a region is greatest.
What is a "third place"?
A third place is a place that people go for leisure.
According to your textbook, what are the fundamental concepts of spatial analysis?
Location, distance, space, accessibility, and spatial interaction
What is hegemony?
It is dominance over political, social, economic society.
How has the hegemony of the world economy shifted over the last 500 years?
Shifted to the US post WWII
What are the "three e's" of sustainable development?
Equity, economy, environment
What is "slash-and-burn" agriculture? Why was/is it practiced? What are the drawbacks of this practice?
Burns down a large area of land to regrow which causes deforestation, erosion, and loss of habitat.
What is a hinterland?
A hinterland is the area that surrounds a city where most of their resources come from.
What is import substitution?
The idea that foreign products should be replaced with domestic products
What is comparative advantage?
The ability of an individual or group to carry out a particular economic activity (such as making a specific product) more efficiently than another activity.
What is colonialism?
The policy or practice of acquiring full or partial political control over another country, occupying it with settlers, and exploiting it economically.
Who were the world's major colonizers through history, and where were their colonies located?
British, French, and Dutch
What was the "scramble for Africa"?
European countries scramble to claim land of Africa.
What is environmental determinism?
People will behave in a particular way as a result of their environment
Name some of the chief causes and effects of Globalization.
Cause: Improvised communication, improved transport. Effect: Division of labor, lowered job security, and environmental damage.
What is a "global commodity chain"
Process of putting ___ onto the world market
What are the stages of the materials economy?
Extraction, production, distribution, consume, dispose
What is "planned obsolescence"
Planned obsolescence is when companies create flaws within a product to make them deteriorate.
What is "perceived obsolescence"?
Perceived obsolescence is when a company changes the style of a product so consumers believe it is outdated.
According to "Broccoli and Desire," what is the role of "desire" in the global economy?
Both actors are behaving to try and have a better life.
Where were the world's major agricultural hearth areas located?
The Americas and South Asia
What is a "dependency ratio"?
The dependency ratio is the ratio that compares those in the workforce under those who are not the age of the workforce.
What is "demography"?
the study of statistics which illustrate the changing structure of human populations.
What does it mean to "govern" (vs. to simply "rule") a territory?
When you govern, you care for the people and want a better life for your people
Who is the major theorist whose ideas shape concepts of governance in contemporary social science?
Who wrote the major contemporary work on legibility?
James C Scott.
What is "crude" population density?
The total number of people divided by space.
How can we describe and explain the patterns that appear on a map of global population density?
Along coast, along water. People are not in the desert, in the north where it is cold (environmental factors)
What are age-sex pyramids
Graphical illustration that shows the distribution of various age groups in a population
What is a "cohort"?
A group of people banded together or treated as a group.
Who are the "baby boomers"? When and why was there a "baby boom"?
people born between 1946-1964, due to Great Depression and WWII
Explain the equation G = B-D + (I-E). What does it mean?
Growth equals birth minus death plus immigration minus emigration.
Explain the demographic transition model
As countries become more developed, their birth rates and death rates decrease
What is another name for a forced international migrant?
What is another name for a forced internal migrant?
A displaced person
What is the difference between gross and net migration?
Gross = total emigration + immigration. Net = the difference between the two
What are guest workers?
What was Mathus' theory regarding population?
Dealing with population growth, we only have x amount of resources and as we keep growing and growing we are going to run out of food, etc
What is ICE? Why do some people want it abolished? What do many people misunderstand about ICE?
ICE = Immigration and Customs Enforcement. People want it abolished because a lot of people associate it with separating families at the border. People misunderstand that ICE doesn't actually do that when ICE actually deals with what happens 100 miles away from the border.
What does it mean to say that "nature" is socially constructed?
it is something we agree on and susceptible to change
What does I = PAT mean?
Impact on Nature = Population x Affluence x Technology
What is a "virgin soil epidemic"?
The virgin soil epidemic is when an indigenous population is exposed to a disease it has never encountered before.
What is "ecological imperialism"?
Ecological imperialism is the idea that when colonization is paired with the introduction of new plants and animals, the native population cannot withstand the change.
What are the main philosophies of nature in the United States?
Romanticism, transcendentalism, environmental ethics, eco-feminism , deep ecology, environmental justice, and eco-theology
What is emissions trading?
Emission trading is when a company is given permission to trade the levels of greenhouse gases they produce.
What is Chernobyl?
Chernobyl is a city in Ukraine where a nuclear power plant accident resulted in radioactive contamination.
What is Fukushima?
Fukushima was a city that suffered from a nuclear accident as a result of an earthquake and tsunami.
What is Windscale?
Windscale was the largest nuclear accident in Great Britain's history.
What are some types of non-renewable energy?
A type of non-renewable energy is coal
What are some types of renewable energy?
Renewable energy includes wind turbines.
Which region has the most urban areas vulnerable to sea level rise?
What are the Kyoto Protocol?
International agreement linked to United Nations, early attempts to make an international agreement on combating climate change
What is "virtual water"?
The hidden flow of water if food or other commodities are traded from one place to another
What is "environmental justice"?
When environmental problems arise, it tends to fall on the lower classes (Flint Michigan)
What is your textbook's working definition of "culture"? What is culture NOT?
Culture is NOT super organic, culture is in our minds and has to do with our actions. It is constantly changing due to us.
Who was Carl Sauer?
American pioneer in understanding how humans create cultural landscapes
What are "cultural landscapes"?
cultural properties [that] represent the combined works of nature and of man.
What is privilege? Which markers provide privilege and which do not? What is intersectionality?
Social advantages we don't have to think about (has because of who they are). Examples of markers: being male, being white.
What is cultural nationalism?
a form of nationalism in which the nation is defined by a shared culture.
What are UNESCO world heritage sites? What are the criteria for choosing such sites? Name some examples from the textbook.
Global heritage - we all have something to gain or lose (shared). How highly its recognized and how old it is
What is actor-network theory?
Objects have agency over people's actions
What is the fastest growing religion in the US?
What are the five pillars of Islam?
Faith, Prayer, Charity, Fasting, Pilgrimage.
What is the Qur'an?
Islam's religious text
Where are the majority of Muslims located in the world?
Middle East, SE Asia and North Africa
What is a diaspora?
A population not living in their native land
How does religious influence flow within today's world system?
From periphery to core. Spread through migration and poorer people tend to be more committed to their original religion
Who is the Dalai Lama?
spiritual leader of tibetan buddhism
Who was Prince Gautama?
What is cultural nationalism?
the nation is defined by a shared culture
What is a lingua franca?
A language of international communication, most common language spoken
What is language revival?
is an attempt to halt or reverse the decline of a language or to revive an extinct one. T
What language family encompasses the languages of 50% of the world's population? What are some languages that belong to this family?
Indo-European language family
What is mutual intelligibility?
Two languages are similar enough that they can speak their own languages and understand each other
What is the dominant religion in the United States?
What is the dominant religion in North Africa?
What is veiling?
from the headscarf to the full body garment - is one of the most visible signs of Islam as a religion.
What figures do the major religions of Jews, Christians, Muslims, Baha'I and Druze all have in common?
God and Abraham
What is territoriality?
nonverbal communication that refers to how people use space to communicate ownership or occupancy of areas and possessions.
What components organize our cognitive images of the world?
What is semiotics?
the study of signs and symbols and their use or interpretation.
What major geographer is associated with this approach today?
Yi-Fu Tuan wrote a piece called humanistic geography.
What is the heritage industry? What are some of its effects?
An aspect of tourism, a commodification of a place's past. A conversion of historical sites into a tourist attraction. Its effects: history becomes something you can sell, it enshrines a specific perspective on history
What is Dark tourism?
tourism involving travel to places historically associated with death and tragedy.
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