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CNED 501 Counseling Theories & Methods Quiz 2
Terms in this set (148)
pioneer in Cognitive Therapy. Suggested negative beliefs cause depression.
therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions
How did Freud influence Cognitive Therapy?
focus on unconscious thoughts and anger can be internalized into
How did Beck influence Cognitive Therapy?
Automatic thoughts and depression (cognitive distortions)
How did Alfred Adler influence Cognitive Therapy?
Believed in cognitive nature of individuals and had an active therapeutic approach
How did Albert Ellis influence Cognitive Therapy?
focus of belief systems and challenging inaccurate
How did George Kelly influence Cognitive Therapy?
created dichotomous personal constructs
What are personal constructs?
cognitive structures we use to
interpret & predict events (ie. friendly-unfriendly, strong-weak, intelligent-stupid)
goals of cognitive therapy
Remove biases and distortions in thinking to produce more effective functioning, specify goals, clients collaborate with therapist
How did Jean Piaget influence Cognitive Therapy?
Cognitive development from childhood and cognitive science (models of mental functioning)
Automatic thoughts (CT)
Ideas or thoughts that are triggered by particular stimuli that lead to emotional responses.
Childhood development of beliefs
Long standing views of self and world develop
Ways of thinking that comprise a set of core beliefs and
assumptions about self and the world
Cognitive developmental model
We develop schemas during childhood. Critical incidents (activating schemas) influence automatic thoughts (emotions, behaviors, physiological responses).
Ways in which people distort their thinking (CT)
all or nothing, selective abstraction, mind reading, negative prediction, catastrophizing, overgeneralization, labeling/mislabeling, magnification, minimization, and personalization.
all-or-nothing thinking (CT)
the tendency to believe that one's performance must be perfect or the result will be a total failure
selective abstraction (CT)
A cognitive distortion that involves forming conclusions based on an isolated detail of an event.
mind reading (CT)
belief that we know what another person is thinking (ex: thinking someone doesn't like you if they don't want to work in a group with you)
Negative prediction (CT)
belief that something bad may happen with no evidence (ex: thinking you won't make it to graduation when you've done well in all your classes)
Catastrophizing beliefs (CT)
an irrational thought a lot of us have in believing that something is far worse than it actually is
applying rules broadly (ex: my relationship did not work out. I'm not good with people). This can also be related to stereotypes.
negative view based on errors one has made
An imperfection is exaggerated (ex: I can't play today. My athletic career is over)
A positive event becomes less important (ex: I got great reviews on my performance but that doesn't mean anything)
An event is related to oneself when there is no relationship
How are projection and mind reading different (CT)?
Projection is about your own beliefs and mind reading is about the beliefs other people have (not related to your own!).
Assessments of Cognitive Therapy
Interviews, self-monitoring, and scales and questionnaires
Process of making therapeutic change in CT
Guided discovery (clarification and assumption), three question technique, specifying automatic thoughts, assigning homework, and termination and relapse issues
Cognitive conceptualization diagram (CT)
Self-monitoring techniques (CT)
Monitoring thoughts, feelings, and behavior outside of environment where the problems occur. Dysfunctional Thought Record (situation, rate an identify emotion, automatic thoughts)
Types of scales and questions of CT
Beck Depression Inventory
Scale for Suicide Ideation
Dysfunctional Attitude Scale
Teaching model where students learn through explorations, but with directions from teacher.
Types of clarification questions
WHAT DO YOU MEAN BY...?
• COULD YOU PUT THAT ANOTHER WAY?
• WHAT DO YOU THINK THE MAIN ISSUE IS?
• COULD YOU GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE?
• COULD YOU EXPAND UPON THAT FURTHER?
Types of assumption questions (CT)
WHY WOULD SOMEONE MAKE THIS ASSUMPTION?
• WHAT IS ___ ASSUMING HERE?
• WHAT COULD WE ASSUME INSTEAD?
• YOU SEEM TO BE ASSUMING ___ .
• DO I UNDERSTAND YOU CORRECTLY?
Three question technique (CT)
1. What is the evidence for the belief?
2. How else can you interpret the situation?
3. If it is true, what are the implications?
Methods for changing cognitive distortions (CT)
understanding idiosyncratic meaning, challenging absolutes, reattribution, labeling of distortions, decatastrophizing, challenging all or nothing thinking, listing advantages and disadvantages, cognitive rehearsal
Idiosyncratic meaning (CT)
mode of behavior or way of thought peculiar to an individual.
For clients who engage in "all-or-none" thinking, this technique can get more accurate information (Beck called this "musterbation")
A technique used by Beck to challenge the self-blaming thoughts of depressed persons. The purpose is to show that events perceived as negative may not be the person's fault.
labeling of distortions
provide labels for specific types of distorted thinking to help the client gain more distance and perspective
a technique that involves learning to assess situations realistically rather than always assuming a catastrophe will happen
the tendency to believe that one's performance must be perfect or the result will be a total failure
advantages and disadvantages
technique in CT used to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of a client's distorted thinking
A technique used in therapy where the therapist and patient work together to find ways in which a certain problem can be handled.
CT Concepts used in treating depression
Gender issues and CT
Interaction of gender schemas and other schemas
CT and issues with depressed women
Collaboration - encourage woman's power
• Support client beliefs and values as well as challenge
Issues with gay men
Learn about sexual orientation
• Challenge assumptions about sexuality and sexual roles
• Counter misinformation about being gay
• Role play "coming out"
• Deal with shame issues
Multicultural issues and CT
Cultural schemas - cultural beliefs and values, cognitive therapy's practical and active approach may help to counteract negative stereotypes about therapy, educational focus of therapy may have wide appeal, and application to African-Americans, Latinas, Latinos, and Native Americans
cognitive triad of depression
negative view of self, world, and future.
What is the evidence for the belief?
How else can you interpret this situation?
If it is true, what are the implications?
According to William Glasser, all behavior is
total and chose
The integrated components of doing, thinking, feeling, and physiology. Choice theory assumes that all elements of behavior are interrelated (all behavior is total behavior, all behavior is chosen)
Car analogy of reality therapy
Basic needs are the engine, the steering wheel is our wants, thinking and acting are the front two wheels, the back two wheels are feeling and physiology.
Describe the roles of the front and back wheels of the total behavior analogy of a car.
We have more control over front wheels (acting and thinking) of the car than we do over the back wheels (feelings and physiology)
Why choose to depress or to anxietize?
Keep angering under control, to get others to help you, to excuse your unwillingness to do something more effective, and to gain control over others
Goals of Reality Therapy
Meet needs (belonging, power, freedom, fun) for
belonging power freedom fun
in responsible and satisfying ways.
In reality therapy, clients determine __________ and counselors determine how _________ are helping clients realize them.
wants and behaviors
Assessment (Reality Therapy)
Ask clients what they want, to determine the total behavior (acting, thinking, feeling, and physiology), listen for choices that client makes, and assess how clients' needs are being met
Wubbolding WDEP Model of Reality Therapy
Wants, direction/doing (take control through actions), evaluation (value judgments), planning (do specific things)
Counseling relationship issues in reality
1) don't accept excuses from the client
2) don't criticize or punish the client
3) don't give up on the client
Questions in reality therapy serve to...
1) enter the client's world
2) gather information
3) give information
4) help clients take control over their lives
Common reality therapy strategies include...
1) metaphors (using client's language)
2) humor (fits with relationship development)
3) confrontation (don't accept excuses or give up on the client)
4) paradoxical techniques (reframing and prescriptions, similar to prescribing the symptom)
5) be positive with the client
Gender issues in reality therapy
• Focus on therapeutic relationship
• Accept client values - gender and other
• Power of women to control their lives and meet basic needs
• Focus on power can appeal to men to control their lives
• Emphasis on productivity and planning can appeal to men
Criticism of reality therapy
• Does not consider discrimination and racism
Positive features of reality therapy
Respects cultural differences
Choices made within value systems and examine the effect of plans on others in the family and cultural group
Recent Contributors to Solution-Focused Therapy
Steve de Shazer and Insoo Kim Berg
Recent Contributors to Narrative Therapy
Michael White and David Epston
Basic concepts of SFT
1) Social constructivist approach (construct knowledge through interaction with others)
2) Focus on solutions rather than development of problem
Goals of SFT
4) feedback on progress towards goals
Ex. SMART goals
• Forming collaborative relationship
• Pre-therapy change (before first appt)
• Coping questions
• The miracle question
Forming collaborative relationship (SFT)
Being empathetic and acknowledging the client's power
Direct compliments or self-complimenting (asking a client questions to talk
about their success)
Pre-therapy change (before first appt)
What has the client done since they called to make their first
Used in solution-focused therapy to help clients realize that they have been managing difficult circumstances
A solution-focused technique that asks clients to imagine how their life would be different if they woke up tomorrow and they no longer had their problem.
A solution-focused technique that asks clients to observe changes in feelings, moods, thoughts, and behaviors. On a scale of zero to 10, clients are asked to rate some change in their experiences
Using answers from scaling questions to quantify level of motivation
Exception-seeking questions (unique outcome)
When the problem did not occur
Formula first session task
Solution-focused therapists routinely ask clients at the end of the first session to think about what they do not want to change about their lives as a result of ' therapy. This focuses them on strengths in their lives and begins the solution-generating process.
"the message" of SFT
Note from counselor (compliments, bridging statements, task)
A postmodern approach to therapy that is based on the therapist's personal characteristics that allow for creating a climate that encourages clients to see their stories from different perspectives. Grounded in a philosophical framework, narrative practices assist clients in finding new meanings and new possibilities in their lives.
Narrative Therapy Techniques
1. externalizing conversations
3. problems are ordinary difficulties and challenges of life
4. no formula to follow that will ensure a desired outcome
Narrative Therapy Goals
1. find evidence to support a new view of self as being competent
2. use fresh language
3. heightened sense of personal agency
Concepts of narrative therapy
setting, characterization, plot, themes
Epston & White's narrative therapy
Social constructivist approach
to how clients perceive the world around them and includes stories of people's lives and cultural, economic political, and social influences
understanding themes and meanings in stories
Epston and White's Narrative Therapy Goals
Positive versus problem-saturated stories and positive alternatives (shaping meaning from characters and plots)
Epston and White's Narrative Theory Techniques
1) Externalizing the problem
2) Unique outcomes
3) alternative narratives
4) positive narrative
5) questions about the future
6) support for client's stories
externalizing problems (NT)
Making the problem the opponent
unique outcomes (narrative therapy)
uncovering new truths or strengths
Exploring strengths, abilities , and aspirations to tell a positive story
Client stories about what is going well
Questions about the future
Looking into the future at potentially
Support for client stories
Using letters, leagues/web pages, certificates, and other people to help the client maintain changes
Current Trends of Solution-Focused Therapy
• Used in settings where sessions need to be limited
• Used frequently in social work and school counseling settings
Current Trends Narrative Therapy
• Exploring new directions in narrative therapy
• Examine the several viewpoints of a client
• Complex narrative therapy with personality disorders
Gender Issues of Narrative Therapies
Gender an element of a story (e.g. violence, discrimination) Positive stories of women
Multicultural Issues Narrative Therapies
• Language structure affects the story
• Clients' culture affects the story
• Testimony therapy- African-centered theory that focuses on the African experience in the United States
emphasizes the role of social, political, and economic stresses facing women as a major source of their psychological problems
a theoretical approach that looks at gender inequities in society and the way that gender structures the social world
Feminist Therapy Goals
• Therapy for change, not adjustment
• Self-nurturance and self-esteem (meeting one's own needs and
taking care of oneself)
• Balancing instrumental and relational strengths (independent with meaningful relationships)
• Body image and sensuality (help individuals accept their body and sexuality)
• Affirming diversity (valuing cultural differences)
• Empowerment and social action (working towards change)
Factors Affecting the Development of Feminist Therapy
• Chesler's critique of the mental health system - Female client/male therapist as patriarchal
• Research on sex-biased values of therapists
• Criticisms of psychoanalysis
• Social and political change groups - Consciousness-raising
and National Organization for Women
• Play with dolls and kitchen sets
• Girls play with girls
• Nurturing and helplessness
• Play with trucks and tools
• Boys play with boys
• Independence and efficacy
• Puberty and female sexuality
• Valued for appearance
• Compete for attention from boys
• Valued for appearance and achievement
• Compete athletically and academically
• Pressure to have children
• Do 60-70% of housework
• Secretaries and admin assts.
• Do 30-40% of housework
• Engineers and architects • Physicians
a cognitive theory referring to core beliefs that individuals hold; identities that individuals have
ADDRESSING Model (Laura Brown)
Acquired and Developmental Disabilities
Questions of the ADDRESSING model
Age: How do age or generational issues affect the person?
Disability (acquired): How does the disability affect
relationships with family or caregivers?
• Disability (developmental): How does the disability affect relationships at different points in the person's life?
• Religion: Person's upbringing and current beliefs?
• Ethnicity: Meanings of the racial or ethnic identity in the communities that the person lives in?
Social Class: SES status may be defined by occupation, income, marital status, gender, ethnicity, or community
• Sexual Orientation: What is the sexual orientation of the individual?
• Indigenous Heritage: Is being indigenous part of one's heritage?
• National Origin: National origin and primary language?
• Gender or sex: Gender roles and expectations?
The Relational Cultural Model
4) sense of worth
zest (feminist theory)
great enthusiasm and energy
action (feminist theory)
positive when individuals are listening to each other
Knowledge (feminist theory)
gained through nonjudgmental listening
Sense of worth (feminist theory)
comes from trusting relationships and
feeling that one's thoughts/feelings are valued
Parts of the relationship cultural model develop through...
positive and growth-fostering relationships
Growing in a relationship and being able to move forward despite setbacks
Being empathic towards self and others; build a sense of strength in a community
Two things relational cultural model seeks to develop
relational resilience and competence
Problems in context of culture
Gender role expectations
• Somatic: awareness of physical senses; body is accepted for what it is
• Intrapersonal: awareness of what one thinks and feels
• Interpersonal: impact on others; able to have good relationships and able to leave harmful ones
• Spiritual: make meaning out of one's life
a set of methods for helping clients learn to express their feelings and stand up for their rights in social situations
Techniques of Feminist Therapy
Reframing and relabeling and therapy demystifying strategies
Reframing and relabeling
changing the frame of reference for looking at an individual's behavior (looking at society for an explanation)
therapy demystifying strategies
havinganopen relationship with the client so that inequities of power in society are not recreated (self-disclosure, describing therapy process)
Feminist Therapy Used with Other Theories
• Object relations
• Behavior therapy
• Cognitive therapy
• Gestalt therapy
• Narrative Therapy
Current Trends in Feminist Therapy
• Social constructivism - questioning traditional roles
• Attending to needs of women from diverse cultural groups
• Regulating training and certification
• Regulating use of the term "feminist therapist" to provide for ethical behavior
• Ethical guidelines
Feminist Therapy Approaches to Social Action
• Leading political groups
• Changing public policy (e.g., preventing environmental
diseases, promoting free or inexpensive daycare)
• Working against violence
Feminist Therapy Issues with Men
•Men's lack of tolerance of depression
•Men's emphasis on achievement and performance •Reluctance to confront feelings
•Inappropriate expression of anger
Feminist Therapy Techniques with Men
•Cultural and gender analysis and intervention •Power analysis and intervention
•Teach listening skills
•Teach men how to work collaboratively with women •Teach new problem solving skills
Feminist Therapy Techniques with Lesbian and Gay clients
•Gender and cultural analysis and intervention
•Power analysis and intervention •Assertiveness training •Reframing and relabeling •Therapy demystifying strategies
Feminist Therapy Issues with Lesbian and Gay clients
•Myths about being lesbian or gay •Discrimination
Multicultural Issues in Feminist Therapy
1) Strong emphasis on attention to cultural issues
2) Application of feminist therapy techniques to people from
Types of feminist therapy applications to diverse cultures
1) Cultural analysis and intervention
2) Power analysis and intervention
3) Assertiveness training
4) Therapy demystifying strategies
5) Support groups
Feminist Therapy Concerns
about Multicultural Issues in Counseling
Bigotry- Conscious or unconscious views the therapist has about ethnic deficits
Color-blindness- Attempts by the therapist to ignore racial differences
Paternalism- The therapist takes responsibility for discrimination the client may have received in the past
Naikan Asian Psychotherapy
Goal: decrease self-centeredness
Method: isolation - self-observations on past relationships
Approach: accept others, be kind to others
Therapist challenges and questions
Morita Asian Psychotherapy
Goal: focus on tasks of life, not symptoms
Method: isolation - inactive except for eating and bodily functions
Approach: do mundane tasks, be practical
Therapist teaches client to observe self, not evaluate self
Concepts in Psychodrama's Theory of Personality
Roles - sociometry (interpersonal connection between 2 people) and other methods show roles individuals have with each other
• Present focused
• Encounter - interpersonal interaction (in the psychodrama group)
• Tele - caring that develops between an individual and the psychodrama group
• Spontaneity and creativity - signs of a healthy and fulfilled life
Roles and Phases in Psychodrama
-Director, protagonist, auxiliaries
-Sharing and discussion
Techniques in Psychodrama
• Monodrama: dialogue with the self
• Role reversal: changing roles
• Double: auxiliary takes the role of the protagonist
• Mirror technique: auxiliary plays the role of the protagonist by mirroring posture, expressions etc, while the protagonist observes
• Act fulfillment: corrective experience that replaces a hurtful experience
• Future projection: clarify concerns about the future
Goal: Deal with emotional conflicts, become aware of feelings, deal with problems
Material: Paints, pencils, pens, crayons, clay, paper, canvas, computers, cameras
Features: Depict images that can not be expressed verbally, fosters a sense of creativity, product is tangible and lasting, can draw self and others to depict relationships
Dance Movement Therapy
1) Growth; interrelate psychological and physical processes
2) Copy client's movement
3) Use music and rhythm
4) Translate a client issue into actions
Drama Therapy Goals
Bring about change through direct experience of theatre art
Drama Therapy Approaches
Discuss the personal meaning of a play Project oneself into characters of a play Project oneself into the character of a puppet Use figures in a sandtray
Drama Therapy Therapist Role
Attend to client-therapist boundaries
Music Therapy Goals
To encourage, soothe, and stimulate social behavior
Music Therapy Techniques
Listen to music
Play music (especially percussion instruments) Sing alone or in a group
Combine with dance movement therapy
The individual therapist may
• Focus on obtaining an accurate diagnosis
• Begin therapy immediately
• Focus on the causes, purposes, and cognitive, emotional, and
behavioral processes involved and coping.
• Be concerned with individual experiences and
• Intervene in ways designed to help client cope.
The family (systemic) therapist may...
• Explore the system for family process and rules, perhaps using a
• Invite mother, father, and sister into therapy
• Focus on the family relationships within which the
continuation of symptoms make sense"
• Be concerned with transgenerational-meanings, rules, cultural and
gender perspectives within the system, and even the community
and larger systems affecting the family.
• Intervene in ways designed to help change client context.