72 terms

Psychology

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Sensation vs. perception
Sensation- bring info in through the senses

perception- actively organizing and interpreting the info.
Parts of the eye
Pupil- opening in iris the way the light enters

Iris- the color part of eye, this determines how
much light to let in.

Lens- focus the light

Retina- back of the eye- best vision
What the fovea is
Is at the center of the retina, has only cones, is the region of maximum visual activity, this is where you want to focus. Adaption of light.
Why we have a blind spot in our visual field
lack of rods or cones where the optic nerve and blood vessels leave the eye
The three dimensions of light
Hue- Determined by wave length (color)

Brightness- Intensity of wave (Brightness)

Saturation- Only one wave length (purity)- more than 1 is unsaturated)
Theories of color vision (& negative afterimages)
trichromatic theory -3 colors- 3 kinds of cones (Red, Blue, Green)

Opponent-Process theory: assumes there are three sets of opposed pairs (Yellow-blue, Red-Green, Black-White)
Three dimensions of sound
Frequency- Pitch

Amplitude-loudness-Hight of sound wave

Timbre- Distinct quality- same note different instrument.
The names of the three tiny bones in the ear
Hammer, amble, stirrup
The names of the three tiny bones in the ear
Hammer, amble, stirrup
Together they are ossecels
The sense of smell
olfaction
The five primary tastes
sweet, sour, bitter, salty, umami (savory)
Research on cell phone use while driving
Inattentional blindness- failing to see visible objects when attention is distracted elsewhere.
Bottom-up vs. top-down processing
Bottom- data driven, this is what I saw so is has to be this or this is all the parts so it has to be this ex- I saw a thing with 4 legs, black nose, and fur- so it has to be a dog.

Top- Concept driven, you look at the whole picture before you look closer. Ex you see a picture of a dog but then you look closer and see the picture is mad of candy.
Perceptual set
What we expect to see determines what we perceive.
Gestalt principles
Principles that describe the brain's organization of sensory information into meaningful units and patterns.
figure-ground
what you see against a background. Ex man playing sax or woman face
Similarity
alike grouped background, distinguishing features that put them into groups in 1 big picture. Ex. Same colored circles in the square.
Proximity
near grouped together, use all the parts to make a different whole. Lady liberty and triangles.
Continuity
looks like it will flow into a pattern. Why is it not a half circle
Ex. Snake on tree
Closure
see a complete figure instead of one with gapes. There are no lines but we feel like they should be there. We create closure with our minds.
Constancies (size, shape, brightness)
Size- the size of something stays the same even if it looks like it is growing or shrinking because of how close we are to it.

Shape- The shape of an object is not going to change, just where or how we see the object/thing will see the preserved shape. Ex door example

Brightness- the brightness of an actual object does not change it is the light source that changes brightness.
The difference between monocular & binocular depth cues
Monocular- only need one eye Ex larger objects appear closer, things on the horizon are far away

Binocular- requires both eyes to be open
Depth perception
The ability to see the distance of an object
The phi phenomenon
A light flash so fast on and off that it looks like there is movement. Ex Motion pictures.
The moon illusion
The moon looks bigger at the horizon then in the sky.
Ambiguous figures
The moon looks bigger at the horizon then in the sky.
Ambiguous figures
same picture but different perception. old lady young woman
How motivation is defined
Persistence toward a goal.
Intrinsic vs. extrinsic motivation
Intrinsic- do something because you like to do it

Extrinsic- do something for the reward
The Yerkes-Dodson law
Arousal theory- you need to be the perfect amount of arousal to perform good. Too little will be boarded and too much will be too anxious.
Drive-reduction theory and homeostasis
Need- what you want/need.

Drives- what you will do to get that need
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
These are the necessities that humans go thorough to get optimum life. We move up and down these needs all the time.
Need for achievement
As humans we all have a need for a achievement, some who make goals that are difficult but are achievable tend to do better.
The ventromedial vs. lateral hypothalamus
Ventromedial- tells you when you are full

Lateral- tells you when you are Hungary
Signals to begin eating
Low glucose, high insulin, food present, stress, time of day, board.
Metabolic rate
how much energy is spent at rest
Set-point theory
The weight range that your body will work optimally. The perfect weight
Anorexia nervosa vs. bulimia nervosa
Anorexia nervosa- severe restriction of food intake and excessive exercise.

Bulimia nervosa- eating way to much, not always throwing up.
Kinsey's research
Challenged the notion of binary sexualities.
Masters & Johnson's research
began his research on the physiology of sexual response in 1954
• He began by interviewing 188 female prostitutes, as well as 27 male prostitutes working for homosexual clientele
• This gave him the preliminary data for "methods of elevating and controlling sexual tensions"

ROPE
The phases of the sexual response cycle
Excitement- arousal begins

Plateau- additional arousal

Orgasm- discharge of tension

Resolution- return to normal state
Sexual orientations
Homosexual- twice as common in males

Only a disorder if the person thinks it is
Cannon-Bard & Schachter-Singer theories of emotion
Bard- We are scared and run at the same time. We have an emotional and physical response at the same time.

Schachter and singer- two factor theory - physiological interpretation happen (heart rate and heavy breathing) cognitive interpretation- we have to think about what emotion will be correct for the situation
Cannon-Bard & Schachter-Singer theories of emotion
Bard- We are scared and run at the same time. We have an emotional and physical response at the same time. WE RUN AND ARE SCARED AT THE SAME TIME.

Schachter and singer- two factor theory - physiological interpretation happen (heart rate and heavy breathing) cognitive interpretation- we have to think about what emotion will be correct for the situation WE RUN WITCH MAKES US SCARED
Basic emotions
Unlearned and universal emotions (fear, surprise)
The facial-feedback hypothesis
Emotion is influenced by facial expressions. You smile while doing something you are more likely to enjoy it.
Display rules
Cultures tell us when to enhance and suppress emotions (ex. Guys can't cry)
The primacy effect of first impressions
We make snap judgments based on physical appearance and on things we see on the surface
Dispositional vs. situational attributions
Dispositional- personal, internal

Situational- environment, exterior
The self-serving bias
Take credit for success and blame others for failure
The mere-exposure effect & the proximity effect
Mere-exposure= how often we see this person.

The proximity= We live close to them (boy next door theory)
The matching hypothesis
We become romantically involved with people who are equivalent to us.
The halo effect
If a person has 1 good quality, then you assume that they have other good qualities.
What is sought in mates across most cultures
We like people who are dependable, mature, have a nice personality, who like us.
Asch's conformity study
If you are in a group of people you are going to conform to them even if you think they are wrong. Follow the groups standards. (the line test with the big group)
Milgram's obedience study
Going to follow the leader. You are going to listen to the guy in the lab coat (Shocking)
The foot-in-the-door technique vs. the door-in-the-face technique
Foot in the door- You are going to ask for something small then because they are doing it you ask for something bigger.

Door in face- You are going to ask for something really big then ask for something smaller and smaller till they say yes.
Social facilitation
How we act in front of other people. If other people are going to arouse us then we are more likely to do it.

Audience effects- how others watching you will affect your performance
Coaction effects
If we are in competition, then we are more likely to work harder.
Social loafing
We are only going to do something or do it as good if we are going to get credit for the work that we have done.
Groupthink
The group wants to be close and want to agree other than looking at facts.
Group polarization
When discussing in a group you are going to lean more towards one side depending on what the group thinks.
Zimbardo's Stanford prison study
The prison study- when people are put in the position of power they can change their own moral believes.
The components of an attitude
Cognitively- Thoughts

Emotionally- Feelings

Behavior- Actions
Cognitive dissonance
When behavior and cognitive don't agree. You think smoking is bad for you but you still smoke. So you are going to change one to make it match.
Persuasion definition
the active and conscious effort to change an attitude through the transmission of a message
The four elements of persuasion
Source- Person who is persuading

Audience- Who is being persuaded

Message- What is being said

Medium- How is it being said
altruism
a concern for others; generosity
The bystander effect / diffusion of responsibility
Bystander- the more people the less likely you are to get help. We just assume that someone ese is going to help.

Diffusion- the presents of others make us less likely to help.
Media violence and aggressive behavior
Media- we watch tv all the time and see violence on tv all the time. We are just watching and learning it.

Aggressive- We are going to be aggressive because we see it happening every day.
Discrimination vs. prejudice
Discrimination- You have a behavior toward a curtain group of people or person.

Prejudice- This is a negative feeling toward s group or person.
Sherif's Robbers Cave study
Summer camp- kids in separate teams automatically become competitive, but If you force kids to work together they are going to be nice and work together.