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What is psychology?

General Psychology Prologue
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humanistic psychology
The importance of current environmental influences on our growth potential was emphasized by:
Wilhelm Wundt
In an experiment conducted by Professor Costa, the participants' first task is to press any button if they see a red light blink. For the second task, they press the rightmost button if they see a red light blink and the leftmost button if they see a green light blink. Professor Costa is studying the difference in the average lag times of these two tasks. This is similar to experiments conducted by which of these early psychologists?
scientific
The suggestion that psychology is less a set of facts than a method of evaluating ideas best highlights the _____ character of psychology.
structuralism
Titchener is to _____ as Freud is to psychoanalysis.
behaviorism
Your professor directs a child and adolescent clinic that focuses on helping patients change their behavior, not on helping them understand themselves or satisfy their inner needs. Which perspective on psychology does your professor have?
introspection; Titchener
Researchers today can use technology such as fMRI scans to measure brain activity. Some researchers ask their subjects to describe elements of their experiences (e.g., sensations, images, feelings) while undergoing the scans. This _____ technique is similar to the methodology of _____.
Titchener
Researchers today can use technology such as fMRI scans to measure brain activity. Some researchers use the introspection technique with their subjects while obtaining the scans, which is similar to the methodology used by the early psychologist _____.
Wilhelm Wundt
In an experiment conducted by Professor Costa, the participants' first task is to press any button if they see a red light blink. For the second task, they press the rightmost button if they see a red light blink and the leftmost button if they see a green light blink. Professor Costa is studying the difference in the average lag times of these two tasks. This is similar to experiments conducted by the German psychologist _____.
Charles Darwin.
The nature-nurture debate has a long history in philosophy and psychology. For example, Plato suggested that some ideas and traits are inherited. This idea was later supported by the work of:
psychodynamic
Focusing on the extent to which personality is influenced by motives outside our own awareness is most relevant to the _____ perspective.
basic
The field of psychology is a collection of diverse subfields. Psychologists who conduct _____ research contribute by expanding the knowledge base of psychology, whereas others who conduct applied research explore practical problems.
Descartes; Locke
In the context of debates concerning the origins of knowledge, nature is to nurture as _____ is to _____.
cognitive
Which perspective would be most relevant to understanding the role of spaced practice on long-term memory of information?
counseling
William and Joy are seeing Dr. Royce for marital issues. Neither one of them has any psychopathology, but they are interested in strengthening their relationship. Dr. Royce is most likely a _____ psychologist.
Locke
Regarding human traits, which of the following individuals would most likely agree with Aristotle?
neuroscience
Dr. Joseph is working with the National Institutes of Mental Health to determine if omega-3 fatty acids have beneficial effects on mood and anxiety disorders. Dr. Joseph is subscribing to the _____ perspective.
developmental
Dr. Hillburton has received approval for his research grant to study the effects of divorce on children ages 5-12 in terms of maturational milestones. Dr. Hillburton is most likely a _____ psychologist.
nature versus nurture.
Is alcohol abuse biologically determined or culturally influenced? This question is most relevant to the issue of:
evolutionary
Understanding why a fear of darkness may have contributed to the survival of our human ancestors is most relevant to the _____ perspective.
social-cultural
A focus on the different marriage rituals practiced by members of different ethnic groups is most relevant to the _____ perspective.
Plato
Your professor argues that children's innate concept of justice enables them to make distinctions between fair and unfair rules. This argument is most consistent with the views of the ancient philosopher _____.
Plato
Professor Boyd believes that children in every culture can distinguish between costs and benefits because humans have an inborn understanding of economics. This belief is most consistent with the views of:
psychiatrist
Jim is a 43-year-old male presenting with auditory hallucinations, ideas of reference, paranoid thoughts of persecution, and claims of "special powers." Jim suffers from paranoid schizophrenia and has not been taking his medication as prescribed. Dr. Verde is evaluating Jim, and may admit him to the hospital so that she can restart his medications and monitor his response. Dr. Verde is most likely a:
counseling
Natalie and Ray are seeing Dr. Becker for marital issues. Neither one of them has any psychopathology, but they are interested in strengthening their relationship. Dr. Becker is most likely a _____ psychologist.
psychiatrist
Dr. Smith prescribes an antidepressant for a patient who is exhibiting symptoms of depression. Dr. Smith is a:
neuroscience
Dr. Joseph is working with the National Institutes of Mental Health to determine if omega-3 fatty acids have beneficial effects on mood and anxiety disorders. Dr. Joseph is subscribing to the _____ perspective.
personality
Basic research on persistent human traits, such as optimism and pessimism, is most characteristic of the specialty known as _____ psychology.
Descartes; Locke
In the context of debates concerning the origins of knowledge, nature is to nurture as _____ is to _____.
psychiatrist
Dr. Casson prescribes an antidepressant for a patient who is exhibiting symptoms of depression. Dr. Casson is a(n) _____.