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A group of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area

exponential growth model

a mathematical description of idealized, unregulated population growth

resource partitioning

The division of environmental resources by coexisting species such that the niche of each species differs by one or more significant factors from the niches of all coexisting species




An interaction in which one organism captures and feeds on another organism

population ecology

The study of populations in relation to the environment, including environmental influences on population density and distribution, age structure, and variations in population size.

logistic growth model

A growth model that describes a population whose growth is initially exponential, but slows as the population approaches the carrying capacity of the environment.


Microbes that cause disease

population size

The number of individuals in a population


A relationship between two species in which both species benefit

population density

Number of individuals per unit area


The extent to which a population exceeds the carrying capacity of its environment


A relationship between two organisms of different species where one benefits and the other is neither harmed nor benefited

population distribution

how population is spread out in an area


A rapid decline in a population due to death.



sex ratio

The number of males per 100 females in the population.

k-selected species

Species that produce a few, often fairly large offspring but invest a great deal of time and energy to ensure that most of those offspring reach reproductive age.

keystone species

A species that influences the survival of many other species in an ecosystem

age structure

Percentage of the population (or number of people of each sex) at each age level in a population.

r-selected species

Species that reproduce early in their life span and produce large numbers of usually small and short-lived offspring in a short period.


Graph showing the number of survivors in different age groups for a particular species.

ecosystem engineers

an organism that causes changes in the physical environment sufficient to influence the structure of landscapes, ecosystems, or communities.

limiting resources

a short supply of resources restricting the growth of a population


A strip of natural habitat that connects two adjacent nature preserves to allow migration of organisms from one place to another

ecological succession

(ecology) the gradual and orderly process of change in an ecosystem brought about by the progressive replacement of one community by another until a stable climax is established

carrying capacity

Largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support


A collection of populations that have regular or intermittent gene flow between geographically separate units

primary succession

An ecological succession that begins in an area where no biotic community previously existed

community ecology

The study of how interactions between species affect community structure and organization

secondary succession

Succession following a disturbance that destroys a community without destroying the soil

growth rate

Is the percentage increase or decrease of GDP from the previous measurement cycle. It is annualized so it can be compared to the previous year.



pioneer species

First species to populate an area during primary succession

intrinsic growth rate

the maximum potential for growth of a population under ideal conditions with unlimited resources

competitive exclusion principle

Ecological rule that states that no two species can occupy the same exact niche in the same habitat at the same time

theory of island bio geography

attempted to predict the number of species that would exist on a newly created island determined by emigration immigration and extinction

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