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APUSH Chapter 10-11
Definition + Historical Significance
Terms in this set (37)
Bank of the United States
The Bank of the United States was first chartered by the US Congress on February 25, 1791 after being proposed by Alexander Hamilton (Secretary of the Treasury) in 1790. The purpose for the bank was to handle the financial needs and requirments of the new central government of the newly formed United States. This is significant as previously the 13 colonies each had their own banks, currencies, financial institutions, and policies. Set for a 20 year charter.
Bill of Rights
The collective name for the first ten amendments to the US Constitution, which limited the power of the US Federal government. Significant because these limitations protected the natural rights of liberty and property such as: freedom of religion, speech, free press, free assembly, free association, as well as the right to keep and bear arms. Introduced to Congress by James Madison as a series of legislative articles. Adopted in 1791.
Also known as the Treaty of London of 1794, the treaty was between the US and Great Britain. Credited with averting another war, the treaty resolved looming issues from the 1983 treaty and facilitated 10 years of peaceful trade. Treaty designed primarily by Alexander Hamilton. The treaty got the British out of pre-Revolutionary forts in the NW territory, the parties agreed to send war debt and Candian-American border issues to arbitration. Treaty contested greatly by Jeffersonians.
Convention of 1800
Also known as the Treaty of Monrtefontaine, the treaty settled hostilities that erupted between the French Republic and the US in the Quasi-War. The treaty also formally marked the end of the French-American alliance.
(1751-1836) James Madison was a US Statesman and political theorist. He was the 4th President of the US from 1809-1817. He is credited with the name "Father of the Constitution" for being the primary auther of the US Constitution and the Bill of Rights. Wrote the Federalist Papers in 1788. He believed in the principle of divided power, such as between federal and state governments, and checks and balances in the government. Oversaw the Louisiana Purchase and the War of 1812.
(1735-1826) American lawyer, statesman, diplomat, and political theorist, and Founding Father. He was a leading champion of the American Revolution, and 2nd president of the US (1797-1801). He was a major delegate to the Continental Congress, and a representative of Congress in Europe. He helped to negotiate peace with the British. Largely wrote the Mass. State Constitution in 1780. First vice-President.
Judiciary Act of 1789
A landmark statue, the Act was adopted in the first session of the US Congress that established the US Federal Judiciary. The Constitution allowed for Federal power to be vested in one supreme court, and allowed for Congress to make lower courts. However, no details were mentioned concerning composition or procedure of the courts. The federal trial courts could be an arm of enforcement of national laws within each state.
Colloquially known as "the Press", Impressment was the action of compelling men into a navy by force and without notice. It was used by the Royal Navy between 1664 and the early 1900s. Impressment was a means of crewing warships. Many British merchant sailors, as well as people from other nations were subject to Impressment. Though opposed by many, Impressment was upheld in courts as it kept the strength of the Navy and thus the British Empire. Britsh Impressment of seamen from American ships caised many tensions leading up to the War of 1812.
Judiciary Act of 1801
Also known as the Midnight Judges Act, it was one of the last important laws passed by the expiring Federalist Congress. It created 16 new federal judgeships and other judicial offices. This was Adams' last attempt to keep Federalists power in the new Republican Congress. His goal was for federalists to dominate the judicial branch of government.
Chesapeake (Leopard) Affair 1807
The affair involved a naval engagement between Great Britain and the US in 1807. The engagment involved the crew of the British warship HMS Leopard boarding an American frigate in the search of Royal Navy deserters. The American public was outaged over the event, with many calling for war. This event led up to the War of 1812.
Occurring in 1803, the Purchase involved the US buying the Louisiana Territory from France. The territory doubled the size of the US. Thomas Jefferson authorized the purchase as he felt uneasy over possible French or Spanish blockades in port of New Orleans, and because Americans were already starting to settle the area. Area = 828,000 sq. mi. Price = $15,000,000 (Less than 3 cents/acre).
The term was originally one used to describe the members of the 12th Congress of the US. They advocated for war with Great Britain in 1812. The term was used to describe a stance of aggression both diplomatically and later militarily, against others to improve their own standing in government, country, or organization. The War Hawks in 1812 were mainly Republicans and were from the southern and western states. They were angered over British raids on American shipping and supposedly for instigating Native attacks on the frontier. A guiding spirit of the War Hawks was Henry Clay.
Embargo Act of 1807
The Act along with the subsequent Nonintercourse Acts were American laws that barred American ships from engaging in foreign trade between 1807 and 1812. The Acts were diplomatic responses by Thomas Jefferson and James Maddison to the Cheapeake Affair in 1807. The goal was to protect American interests and avoid war that was raging in Europe. The Act achieved neither.
Also known as the Indian Nonintercourse Act, it was the collective name given to 6 statutes passed by the US Congress over the years from 1790 to 1834. The Act regulated commerce between Native Americans and non-indians. The inalienability of the aboriginal title in the US was established. The original Act was signed by George Washington.
Lasting from 1791-1794, the Rebellion involved a tax protest in the 1790s. Farmers who sold their corn in the form of whiskey had to pay a new tax which they strongly resented. The tax was devised by Alexander Hamilton as part of a program to pay off national debt. On the western frontier, farmers used violence and intimidation to prevent federal officials from collecting the tax. The suppression of the Rebellion showed the new government was willing and able to suppress those who violently resisted laws. The tax remained difficult to collect, and led to creation of new political parties, such as the Democratic Republican Party.
The Federalist Party was the first political party in the United States created in the 1790s, and remained th only party until 1816. Formed by Alexander Hamilton. Federlaists upheld fiscal soundness and nationalistic government. They wanted a national bank, tariffs, and good relations with Britain.
Anti-Federalists were those involved in a movement that opposed the creation of a stronger US federal gov. The AF's opposed the ratification of the Constitution in 1787, as the Articles of Confederation granted states more authority. They worried the Presidency would just be another monarchy.
Alien and Sedition Act
The Acts were 4 bills passed in 1798 by Federalists in the 5th Congress in the aftermath of the French Rev's reign of terror and the Quasi-War. The government could deport or imprison foreign citizens and prosecute those who spoke out against the government. Theses acts were made to ensure no post-Revolution anarchy could occur; and America almost fell apart over the Federalist/Anti-Federalist issue. Democratic-Republicans saw the Acts as unconstitutional. The Acts saw Kentucky and Virginia make the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, which argued that states had the right and duty to declare acts made by Congress not found in the Constitution as unconstitutional.
George Washington's Farewell Address
Written to the "People of the United States", address was made near the end of his second term as President. Prepared with Alexander Hamilton, the address was important as Washington did not seek a 3rd term and the transition to another President was a peaceful one. Many feared the absence of Washington's leadership would tare the country apart. The address warned against many dangers, with 3 being: 1. Warning against making bonding ties with other countries, 2. Warned that too many political parties would make political conflict, 3. Washington warned of too much public debt.
(1755 or 1757-1804) A Founding Father, Soldier, economist, political philosopher, and first secretary of the treasury. He was the primary author of the economic policies of the George Washington administration, especially the funding of state debts by the Federal Gov., the establishment of a national bank, a system of tariffs, and friendly trade relations with Britain. He has been described as one who, "more than any other designed the Government of the Unite States".
Marbury v. Madison
Occurring in 1803, the landmark case formed the basis for the exercise of judicial review in the US under Article 3 of the Constitution. It was the first time in Western history a court invalidated a law by declaring it unconstitutional, a process called judicial review. The landmark helped to define the checks and balances of the American form of government. This case resulted from a petition to the Supreme Court by William Marbury, who had been appointed by President John Adams as Justice of the Peace in the District of Columbia but whose commission was not subsequently delivered. Marbury petitioned the Supreme Court to force Secretary of State James Madison to deliver the documents, but the court, with John Marshall as Chief Justice, denied Marbury's petition, holding that the part of the statute upon which he based his claim, the Judiciary Act of 1789, was unconstitutional.
(1758-1831) The fifth President of the United States from 1817-1825. He was a founding father and the Virginia dynasty and the Republican Generation. He was secretart of state and secretary of war during the War of 1812. His presidency saw little partisan strife (the "Era of Good Feelings") and then the Panic of 1819, the first major financial crisis of the US, occurred. He also oversaw the debate over the Missouri Territory and the declaration of the Monroe Doctrine in 1823, where the US would not tolerate European incursion into the Americas.
(1770-1838) American explorer, soldier, Indian agent, and territorial governor. Along with Meriwether Lewis, he led the Lewis and Clark expedition of 1803 to 1806 across the Louisiana Purchase to the Pacific Ocean. He subsequently claimed them for the US.
(1761-1849) A Swiss-American ethnologist, linguist, politician, diplomat, congressman, and the longest serving US Secretary of the Treasury. Founded the University of the City of New York in 1831 (renamed NYU in 1896). He was also a senator, a House Majority Leader, founded the House Committee on finance, and more. In office from 1801-1814.
(1746-1813) An American lawyer, politician, diplomaat from NY, and a Foudning Father. He was the first Secretary for Foreign Affairs from 1781-1783 and a US Minister to France from 1801-1804.
(1779-1813) American explorer and officer who as a US Army captain in 1806-1807 led the Pike Expedition to explore and document the southern portion of the Louisiana Purchase and to find the headwaters of the Red River. He served in the War of 1812 as well.
(1755-1835) The chief justice of the US from 1801-1835. His court opinions helped lay the basis for American constitutional law and made the Supreme Court of the US a coequal branch of government along with the legislative and executie branches. He was the longest serving Chief Justice. He was also a Secretary of State under President John Adams.
(1756-1836) An important political figure in the early history of the US. He was chosen as a Senator from NY and was the third Vice President un Thomas Jefferson. He is chiefly remembered for killing his rival Alexander Hamilton in the famous 1804 duel.
Virginia Kentucky Resolutions
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions argued that states had the right and duty to declare acts made by Congress not found in the Constitution as unconstitutional. Such resolution arose in reaction to the Alien and Sedition Act, which the legislatures in Virginia and Kentucky felt were unconstitutional. They argued for states' rights and strict constructionism of the Constitution. The Resolutions were secretly in 1798-1799 by VP Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, respectively.
Jeffersonian Republicans were part of a political party founded in the early 1790s by Thomas Jefferson. First formed in Congress, the party spread to every state to contest elections and to oppose programs made by Alexander Hamilton. The party was a powerful force that opposed the Federalists, a party formed by Alexander Hamilton. The party insisted on a stringent standard derivation of any proposed powers of the US Gov. The movment favored states' rights and the primacy of yeoman farmers. Stongest in the South. Feared a monarchial rule under Federalists. Part of Jeffersonian Democracy.
A 1798 diplomatic episode occurring during the administration of John Adams that Americans interpreted as an insult from France. The event led to the Quasi-War. The Federalist Party used the national anger to build an army and pass the Alien and Sedition Acts to undermine the Democratic Republican Party. The event started with 3 French diplomats (X,Y,Z) who demanded major concessions from the US just to hold bilateral peace negotiations. The French demanded much money and a formal apology by President John Adams.
(1762-1835) One of the famous "Midnight Judges", Marbury was to be appointed a Justice of the Peace in DC due to John Adams' work the night before he was to leave office. He was appointed there to give the Federalists a stronghold in the judicial branch. When he tried to take the office, he was blocked by James Madison when Thomas Jefferson took office. Marbury v. Madison resulted when he sued over his appointment of judge but not getting his paperwork saying he was a judge; case was in 1803.
(1768-1813) A Native American leader of the Shawnee tribe and a large tribal confederacy that opposed the US during Tecumseh's War and the War of 1812. Exposed to warfare growing up in the Ohio Country, he advocated for a his tribe and others to return to their ancestral lands and lifestyle and rejection of colonists and Americans. He attracted a large Indian following. Tecumseh sought an independent Native state east of the Mississippi and collaborated with the British in the War of 1812. He was later killed during the war but is still remembered as a hero by many.
(1743-1803) A leader of the Haitian Revolution, he was a military genious and had great political skill. His leadership established the independent free black state of Haiti. Such a Revolution shook up the institution of slavery throughout the New World.
(1741-1811) Chase was an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court and was earlier a signatory of the US Declaration of Independence as a representative of Maryland. He was at first a fiery advocate for states' rights but soon became a staunch Federalist. He allegedly let his partisan leanings affect his court decisions an was impeached, but later acquitted.
(1774-1809) An American explorer, soldier, and public administrator best known for his role in the Lewis and Clark expedition where the team explored the Louisiana Territory establish trade and sovereignty over the natives near the Missouri River, and claim the Pacific NW and Oregon territory for the US. He was appointed by Thomas Jefferson as governor of Upper Louisiana in 1806.
(1812-?) A Lemhi Shoshone woman who accompanied Lewis and Clark on their expedition as an interpreter and guide.
(1777-1852) A lawyer, politician, and skilled orator who represented Kentucky in both the Senate and in the House of Representatives. He served 3 different terms as Speaker of the House of Representatives and was also Secretary of State from 1825-1829. He was a leading War Hawk and favored war with Britain leading up to the War of 1812. He was the foremost proponent of the American System, which called for tariffs to foster industry in the US, have the Federal gov. build and maintain infrastructure, and a strong national bank. He opposed the Annexation of Texas, as it would inject the slavery issue into politics. He opposed the Mexican-American war and Manifest Destiny. He was known as the "Great Compromiser" and was admired by Abraham Lincoln.
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