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Terms in this set (2)
OPTIC NERVE GLIOMA
Optic nerve glioma.
l It is a benign tumour arising from the astrocytes.
l It usually occurs in first decade of life.
l Associated with von Recklinghausen's neurofibromatosis
l Clinical features.
w early visual loss associated with a gradual, painless,
unilateral axial proptosis
common) or papilloedema and venous
w Intracranial extension of the glioma through optic
canal is not uncommon.
w X- rays show uniform regular rounded enlargement
w occurr in a child usually between 4 and 8 years of age
w Fundus examination may show optic atrophy (more
w CT scan and ultrasonography depicting a fusiform growth in relation to optic nerve
excision of the tumour mass with preservation of the
eyeball, by lateral orbitotomy when the cosmetically
unacceptable proptosis is present in a blind eye (due to optic
w In unoperable cases, radiotherapy should be given.
n OPHTHALMIA NEONATORUM
r bilateral inflammation of the conjunctiva
r occur in an infant
r any discharge or even watering from the eyes in the first week of life should arouse
suspicion of ophthalmia neonatorum, as tears are not formed till then .
r During birth is most common mode of infection from the infected
birth canal especially when the child is born with face presentation
or with forceps.
n Causative agents
r Chemical conjunctivitis caused by silver nitrate or antibiotics used for
r Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus haemolyticus, and
r Neonatal inclusion conjunctivitis caused by serotypes D to K of
Chlamydia trachomatis is the commonest cause of ophthalmia
neonatorum in developed countries.(MCQ)
r Herpes simplex ophthalmia neonatorum caused by herpes simplex-II
n Symptoms and signs
r Pain and tenderness in the eyeball.
r Conjunctival discharg e.
w It is purulent in gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum
w mucoid or mucopurulent in other bacterial cases and
neonatal inclusion conjunctivitis.
w usually swollen in infants born to mothers with
untreated gonococcal infection.
r Postnatal Prophylactic measures include :
r Use of either 1 percent tetracycline ointment or 0.5 percent
erythromycin ointment or 1 percent silver nitrate solution
(Crede's method) into the eyes of the babies immediately after birth.
r Curative treatment.
r Chemical ophthalmia neonatorum
w a self-limiting condition, and does not require any
r Gonococcal ophthalmia
w Topical therapy should include :
* Saline lavage hourly till the discharge is eliminated.
* Bacitracin eye ointment
* penicillin drops
* If cornea is involved then atropine sulphate
ointment should be applied.
w Systemic therapy for 7 days
* crystalline benzyl penicillin
r Neonatal inclusion conjunctivitis
* tetracycline 1 per cent
* erythromycin 0.5 per cent
w systemic erythromycin
* Both parents should also be treated with systemic
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OTHER QUIZLET SETS
Lab Test Values
Pharmacology Chapters 52+53: Eyes, Ears, and Skin