34 terms

Unit 7: Perception

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Perception
the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events
Visual capture
the tendency for vision to dominate the other senses
Figure-ground perception
the ability to discriminate properly between a figure and its background
Perceptual constancies
tendency to perceive objects as stable and unchanging despite changing sensory info (size, shape, brightness, color)
Size constancy
perception of an object as the same size regardless of the distance from which it is viewed
Shape constancy
tendency to see an object as the same shape no matter what angle it is viewed from
Color constancy
perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color, even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths reflected by the object
Monocular cues
Distance cues, such as linear perspective and overlap, available to either eye alone.
Relative clarity
a monocular cue for perceiving depth; hazy objects are farther away than sharp, clear objects
Linear perspective
a monocular cue for perceiving depth; the more parallel lines converge, the greater their perceived distance
Relative size
A monocular cue; if we assume objects are similar in size, the one that casts the smaller retinal image is farther away
Relative brightness
a monocular cue; objects up close appear brighter than objects farther away
Relative height
a monocular cue for perceiving depth; objects higher in our field of vision are perceived as farther away
Texture gradient
a monocular cue; a graduated change in the texture, or grain, of the visual field, whereby objects with finer, less detailed textures are perceived as more distant
Interposition (overlap)
a monocular cue; if one object partially blocks our view of another, we perceive it as closer
Relative motion
The perception of an observer that, as the observer moves forward, the objects that appear to him/her to move backwards faster are closer than apparently slower-moving objects; a monocular cue.
Gestalt
An organized whole. Gestalt psychologists emphasize our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes (the whole is greater than the sum of its parts).
Gestalt laws of grouping or organization
The perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups (proximity, similarity, continuity, connectedness and closure).
Binocular cues
depth cues, such as retinal disparity, that depend on the use of two eyes
Retinal disparity
a binocular cue for perceiving depth; by comparing images from the two eyeballs, the brain computes distance - the greater the disparity (difference) between the two images, the close the object
Convergence
a binocular cue for perceiving depth; the extent to which the eyes turn inward when looking at an object
Visual cliff
a laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals
Stereoscopic movement
When presented with a rapid series of slightly varying images, the brain perceives continuous movement (e.g., film animation)
Phi phenomenon
an illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights blink on and off in quick succession
Perceptual adaptation
in vision, the ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field
Perceptual set
a mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another
Schema
a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information; the mental mold into which we pour our experiences.
Context effects
The influence of the surroundings on the recognition or interpretation of patterns or objects.
Human factors psychologists
psychologists that help design appliances, machines, and work settings that harness natural perception sets (i.e., make things user-friendly and intuitive)
ESP
Extrasensory perception; the controversial claim that sensation can occur apart from sensory input
parapsychology
the study of paranormal events including extrasensory perception, psychokinesis, and survival of consciousness after death.
Telepathy
the ability to read another's thoughts or to communicate by thinking
Clairvoyance
perceiving remote events, such as sensing that a friend's house is on fire
Precognition
knowledge of pending future events; premonition- feeling or warning about future events