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Climate change test
Terms in this set (54)
A layer of gases, including nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide, surrounding the Earth
A place (ecosystem) or organism that can store carbon for long periods of time, keeping it out of the atmosphere
Anything that adds carbon to the atmosphere by emitting more carbon than it absorbs
Any variation in global or regional long-term weather patterns
Energy sources such as petroleum, coal, and natural gas that are produced by the decomposition of ancient plants and animals
The process by which gases in Earth's atmosphere retain infrared radiation (heat) from the sun to warm the Earth's surface
Any gas in the atmosphere capable of absorbing infrared radiation (heat) reflected from the Earth's surface; they act like a blaket in a way
-Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
-Nitrus Oxide (N2O)
What are the 5 main greenhouse gases?
They reflect the sun's energy back into space causing it to change into infrared radiation (heat) and warm the earth
How do greenhouse gases keep the earth warm?
The human burning of fossil fuels
What has increased the levels of CO2 in the atmosphere?
Forests, Oceans, Soil and Permafrost
What are the major carbon sinks found on earth?
Scientists analyze the air bubbles trapped in ice cores because the deep ice existed more than 400,000 years ago
How do scientists find CO2 levels from long ago (400,000 years ago)?
-Consume fewer resources
-switch from fossil fuels to renewable energy
what are three things that you can do to reduce climate change?
-In the last decade, sea levels have risen at a rate almost double to that of the last century
-The Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets have significantly decreased in mass
-Glaciers are retreating almost everywhere around the world
-The # of high temperature extreme events in the US have increases, while the # of low temperature have decreases
-After the industrial revolution, ocean acidification has increases by 30% due to an increase of CO2 in the atmosphere
-Global temperature has risen since 1880
What are 6 lines of evidence that scientists have found that support the idea of climate change?
-Precipitation will increase in high latitudes
-agriculture increase in some parts of the world
-Increase in water for energy generation
-decrease in sea ice/permafrost will help with transportation and access to fossil fuels
What are some benefits of climate change?
-Increases frequency, intensity and duration of heat waves
-Increased risk of flash floods and decrease of tourism in Europe
-Biodiversity and production of crops is severely getting lower
-Decreased water sources in semi-arid areas (droughts)
-Increased tropical cyclone intensity
-decrease in agriculture in some parts of the world
What are some drawbacks of climate change?
-It is impossible to see if individual extreme events are being caused by greenhouse warming warming because there are too many other factors
-Extreme events can be a natural occurrence caused by many factors
-In Boulder, extreme events can cause floods/droughts
Can individual extreme events be explained by greenhouse warming
-Climate change affects the amount, intensity, frequency and type of precipitation
-when the atmosphere is warmer it can hold more moisture
-In Boulder we will have more fires because more water molecules will be suspended in the atmosphere
How is precipitation changing because of the changes in climate?
-Ice ages have come and gone in regular cycles
-They are caused by variation in the earths orbit around the sun
-The snow and ice from the last winter doesn't melt because of the decrease in the amount of sun, causing the snow to reflect more, making the earth even cooler
-CO2 concentration is lower during ice age and higher during warming periods
-Leading causes for ice ages are solar variation, ocean current variation, and volcanic activity
What caused the ice ages and other important climate changes before the industrial era?
-It depends on the type of gas because the process of removing certain gases is more difficult than others
-different greenhouse gases stay in the atmosphere for different amounts of time
-even if we reduce emissions by 50% CO2 levels still rise
If emissions of greenhouse gasses are reduces, how quickly do their concentrations in the atmosphere decrease?
-Humans add greenhouse gases, aerosols and cloudiness to the atmosphere
-humans have has a bigger impact than natural processes
-methane has increases due to agriculture, natural gas distribution, land fills and other human activities
-in Boulder, ski season will be shorter and the water supply will decrease because the glaciers are melting
How do human activities contribute to climate change and how do they compare with natural influences?
-Increase in floods in areas with heavy precipitation (amount of precipitation doesn't change, its just heavier so it collects more)
-Increase in droughts in areas with lower precipitation
-Heavy increase in frequency and intensity of hurricanes and tropical storms
-Significant increase in frequency and temperatures of heat waves and warm nights
Has there been a change in extreme events like heat waves, droughts, floods and hurricanes due to climate change?
-Yes because of landforms, latitude and other regional factors
-regional changes affect tropical storms
-Precipitation levels are increasing and decreasing differently around the world
-In Boulder, in the winter, precipitation levels will increase/ remain constant and in the summer they will decrease
Do projected changes in climate vary from region to region?
-There are a lot of places in the world that haven't felt the impact yet
-some people think that climate change is just another warming/cooling cycle that has happened before
Why do some people not accept the idea that climate change is being caused by human activity?
-In the past they have has a high cost, short battery life and low speed
-Now, Teslas have better ways to accelerate and charge, creating less emissions and easier accessability
Why have electric cars not been successful in the past? Why are they more popular now?
-Converting trash into renewable energy to reduce CO2 created by trash
-converting CO2 into liquid and sending it into the ground instead of the air
What are three new energy innovations discribed in the Bill Nye video?
-Climate change is outstripping the ability of organisms to adapt to it
-the habitat will be too destroyed to support life
-methane, a more potent gas than CO2, is being released from the arctic and is significantly making the climate warmer
Why does one climate scientist think that the human species will become extinct in 2030?
-Wind and solar power is the best for Colorado because it has good access to sun and wind
-Wind is the best for Alaska because it has little sun and a lot of wind
-they aren't the same because different climates can produce different types of energy
what type of renewable power is best for Colorado? Alaska? Why aren't they the same?
-The pipeline would continue to extract fossil fuels and would create more CO2
-Higher caner rate because of contamination
what are two arguments against the Keystone Pipeline?
-More money and economic stimulus
what are two arguments for the Keystone Pipeline?
Cap= the limit amount of CO2 that an industry or company can produce
Trade= the exchange of $ for CO2 credits from industries that are better at reducing CO2
What is meant by the cap and trade idea for carbon dioxide emitters?
The temperatures in Philadelphia are getting too high, causing people in sensitive areas to be severely harmed and sometimes even die
What problem is Philadelphia facing?
They found the date of where the most sensitive neighborhoods were and overlaid the heat wave data and found out that 10% of the city is more at risk. They are also looking at vegetation (NDVI) and temperature (LST) date
Identify how researchers are using data to analyze the problem in Philadelphia
They are planting rain gardens to absorb heated rainwater, they opened cooling centers for people to cool down at, they distributed water bottles to homeless, and they are turning more power on to increase air conditioning
What solutions are being implemented to help the people of Philadelphia?
They want to analyze the Land Surface Temperature of other cities to see where their most vulnerable areas are. Ultimately they are trying to spread it to more places
What would the research team like to do with their work in the city of Philadelphia?
Who is supporting the research being done in Philadelphia?
Aqua and Terra
What are the names of the satellites used to collect the data that was used in the work in Philadelphia?
Land Surface Temperature, Amount of vegetation and land cover type
what were the three parameters that the satellites were measuring in the research done in Philadelphia?
About 165 mm
how much has the sea level risen in the past 113 years?
by what percentage have CO2 levels increased since 1960?
About 0.85 degrees C, about 1.53 degrees F
by how many degrees has the temperature increases from the 1850's?
-Rock formations in Scottland were laid down in such a way that would have taken more than 6000 years
-Kelvin believed that the earth was once molten lava and it would have taken more than 6000 years for it to cool to its current state
-Radioactive decay and radiometric dating figured out how old rocks and the earth is
What are three lines of evidence that the Earth was more than 6000 years old?
-Earth was formed by millions of meteor collisions
-Gradual cooling of the core allowed the earth to cool into a crust and tiny water particles started to form
-CO2 and water vapors were released when the rocks cooled, causing more water
-clouds of water vapor condensed and thunderstorms caused the water to fall and collect on the earth for millions of years
Major events: 4.5 bya to 4.0 bya
-Pillow lava rocks were formed by lava in the deep ocean
-an upsurge of volcanic activity underwater created granite and created the first true continental crust
-granite crusts appeared all over the world which would later be the hearts of the continents today
-shallow oceans allowed for more oxygen and more life
Major events 3.5 bya
-STROMATOLITES were created by algae and released oxygen into the atmosphere through photosynthesis
-the ocean turned from green to blue because the iron left
-the sky turned blue because the oxygen replaced the CO2
-continents grew to cover 1/4 of the surface and were moving
Major events 2.2 bya
-A super continent was formed and the ocean got smaller (continent was desolate and lifeless)
-primitive life forms were blooming in the ocean
major events 1.0 bya
-The polar regions froze because of the new continent which effected the climate by blocking ocean currents
-this caused a snowball effect and earth was eventually covered in a mile deep ice sheet
-living organisms were dying and were almost wiped out
-heat was being formed under the surface which caused CO2 to be released and created a greenhouse effect, which melted the ice
major events 700 mya to 630 mya
-new and more complex organisms formed because of increased oxygen and shallow seas (Cambrian explosion)
-animals started feeding on each other
-skeletons, hard shells, eyes and teeth developed
-high levels of oxygen created an ozone layer that protected the land from the sun which allowed organisms to move onto land
major events 500 mya
-continents converged and life moved to land, creating tropical swamps
-large plants occupied the earth's surface and produced a jungle like atmosphere
-coal today was formed because of the unique way the freshwater swamps decomposed
-giant insects and reptilians moved onto land and were really big
major events 300 mya
-mantle plume eruptions happened in Siberia and caused a mass extinction
-over 95% of living things were driven to extinction
-Pangaea emerged from the catastrophe
-the remaining organisms evolved into the dinosaurs
-volcanism triggered an oxygen rich environment
major events 250 mya to 180 mya
-an increase in volcanic activity caused Pangaea to split apart into something similar to the continents today
-CO2 levels went up and so did temperatures
-another mass extinction happened, wiping out the dinosaurs because an astroid hit near the gulf of Mexico
-lava flows were also happening at the the same time as the meteor
-both of these events created dust clouds which blocked the sun and devastated life
-only small warm blooded animals survived and eventually evolved into mammals
major events 65 mya to 50 mya
-ancestors of modern humans were alive and began to spread out of Africa
-another ice age began and was triggered because of the land bridge between north and south America (changed ocean currents)
-ice sheets waxed and waned because of changes in climate
-the ice sheets helped shape the landscape we see today
-humans came in around 10,000 years ago and made incredible technological advancements
-global warming and climate change has started to occur
Major events 2 mya to present
-planet will continue to change
-a new ice age will happen and a new supercontinent will form in millions of years
-earth will eventually die when plate tectonics stop moving billions of years in the future
Future of the earth
-the same fossils are found on different continents
-the continents look like they fir together like puzzle pieces
-evidence of ancient climates that were very different from climates today was found on separate continents
-continuation of geographical features from one continent to another
4 lines of evidence to support the hypothesis of continental drift
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