90 terms

Greek Art/ Etruscan/ Roman

STUDY
PLAY
Archaic Period
600-480 BCE
Greek Art
Peplos Kore
-Greek Art/ Archaic
-Similar to egypt sculptures
-Marble
-Don't know if its a priest, goddess or votive
Peplos Kore
Kroisos, Anavysos
-Greek Art/ Archaic
-Archaic smile
-Abstracted muscles, stomach and chest
-Similar to what a real human bone and muscle structure looks like
Kroisos, Anavysos
Bilingual Amphora
-Greek Art/Archaic
-Use for narrative/ trade
-2 languages: black/ red figure
Bilingual Amphora: BLACK FIGURE
-Greek Art/ Archaic
-Decorative elements
-Trojan heros taking a break from battle
-Acilis, bigger
-Ajacks- smaller
Bilingual Amphora: RED FIGURE
-Greek Art/ Archaic
-depth and space overlap
Bilingual Amphora
Euthymides, 3 revelers
-Greek Art/Archaic
-Broke the composic perspective trend
-See the ass and the back of the figure as twisting in space: no longer just 2 dimension
-Realistic skin tone
Euthymides, 3 revelers
Temple Parts
-Greek Art/Archaic
1. Elevated platform: top is stylobate
2. Cella: where cult statue is held, post lentel, heavily decorate outside
3. Columns
4. Entablature
5. Pediment
6. Akroteria
-House of cult statue
-Leave sacrifice at an alter
-Wanted perfection
Doric Order
-Greek Art/Archaic
-No base
-Heavy columns
-Simple capital
-Entablature: Metopes and trilyphs
(metopes- take decorations bc its a flat area)
(triglyphs- similar to wooden beams)
Doric Temple
Ionic Temple
Temple of Artemis
-Greek Art/Archaic
-Medusa head overlaps framing element
-Lack of unity of subject matter
-Relief
-Medusa: tongue out, if you look directly at them, you turn to stone, supposed to look like Lamassu
-Archaic: smile, guppy eyes, braids(4)
-"protector of temple": lion similar to sphinx, lion gate
-Lion: similar to ancient near east
Temple of Artemis
Early and High Classical
480-431 BCE
Greek Art
Polykleitos, spear bearer
-Greek Art/Early and high classical
-Poly wrote a book on the perfect proportions
-"Perfect figure":
1. thick waist
2. "Contra(cross)ppasto"- contrappasto: shifting weight around axis
3. opposite hand should rest- opposite leg should rest, vise vera
4. originally bronze
5. painted, no emotion
Polykleitos, spear bearer
Acropolis, Athens
-Greek Art/Early and High Classical
-"we need to pull our money then use it to buy ships to protect ourselves"
-use money to put military men to work
Acropolis, Athens
...
Ikinos and Kallikrates, Parthenon [Athens]
-Greek Art/Early and High Classical
-"most perfect building"
-TO HOUSE A VOTIVE STATUE
-enormous
-designed like stonehenge
-doric: on outside
-ionic: on inside
-wasn't a sculpture for a cult statue
-main cella has a votive statue of Athena
Ikinos and Kallikrates, Parthenon [Athens]:
Exterior sculpture- pediments, metopes, frieze
-Greek Art/ Early and High Classical
-Exterior sculpture: doric
-Pediments:
1. hierarchy of scale
2. carved in the round, 10 ft tall
3. apollo the sun god is bringing the sun up
4.womes ideal: 35 yrs, healthy thick build
-Metopes:
1. generally 2 figures
2. high reliefs and relief in 3D
3. figures put on an angle to make them look like they are moving/ in motion
-Frieze, Ionic:
1. athena fell from the sky they gave her a bath and virgins work on her dress, every 4 yrs procession to give the dress
2. 1st contemporary event
3. muscles are emphasized
Ikinos and Kallikrates, Parthenon
PICTURE***
PHIDIAS, Athena Parthenos
-Greek Art/Early and High Classical
-Ivory
-She was the treasury
-Medusa on her armour, she protected the city
-VOTIVE, traditional, static, frozen
PHIDIAS, Athena Parthenos
Late Classical
431-323 BCE
Greek Art
Lysippos, The Scraper
-Greek Art/Late Classical
-8 heads tall
-Athletic
-"S" curve
-Bronze
-Open sculpture (can walk around it)
Lysippos, The Scraper
Praxiteles, Aphrodite of Knidos
-Greek Art/Late Classical
-woman statue, nude goddess
-built special temple, open and round
-8 heads tall/ "S" curve
-need an excuse for nude women: taking a bath, taking off her robe
-arms draw attention to pubic area rather than covering it
Praxiteles, Aphrodite of Knidos
Hellenistic
323-31 BCE
Greek Art
-(after death of alexander the great)
-start to absord ideas from other cultures
-everything opens up
-BROKE ERA: MEANT TO IMPACT EMOTIONS
Old Market Woman
-Greek Art/Hellenistic
-marble
-seen from all sides
-deep carving, shadow areas, sense of movement
-going to town to exchange goods for things she needs
-supposed to feel a sense of pitty (pathos)
Old Market Woman
Boxer
-Greek Art/Hellenistic
-life size
-heavily muscled
-after a lifetime of boxing, nose broken, ears messed up, tired and old
-pitty (pathos)
-bronze
-eyes in hellenistic: deep set, pull eyebrowsn up and in, hair is longer, bearded
Boxer
Laocoon
-Greek Art/Hellenistic
-group sculpture
-hellenistic: over blown, muscle, sense on evergy, emotion
-preist of troy, snakes "attacking" him (revenge of gods towards priest)
-body of laocoon: muscle, spear bearer head
Laocoon
CULTURE: Etruscan
700-200 BCE
Etruscan Temple
-mud brick
-tiled roof (baked terracotta)
-3 cellas, for different god/ goddess, pushed to back
-Ridge pole: on top they would put terracotta statuary
Etruscan Temple
Apollo Veii
-Etruscan
-ridge pole sculpture
-similar to archaic statue, little smile, braids
-nudity not good
-one leg forward (stiffness)
apollo veii
Sarcophagus
-Etruscan
-cemeteries
-make boxes for dead out of terracotta
-would hold a single figure
-represent husband and wife: frontal bodies, profile legs
sarcophagus
Republic
509-27 BCE
Roman
Temple of Fortune, Rome
-Roman
-Republic
-Adopt and adapt from etruscans
-build out of travertine, gray
-no ridgepole decorations
-have columns all way around
-cella, goes toward back, engaged columns
-porch, 1/3 : cella, 2/3
-would white wash temple
Temple of Fortune, Rome
Temple of Vesta, Tivoli
-Roman
-Republic
-NO cult statue
-held a fire pit in center in which youd get your fire for home
-circular
-elevated platform
-concrete, cheap to make
decorative: skulls, fruits/ vegtables, offering bowl
Temple of Vesta, Tivoli
Roman House
-Republic
-Roman
-for single wealthy family (senate and above)
-mainly to entertain
-front half of house: large opening in roof allowing water to go to well
-few windows
-Back: open garden, statuary
-Tablinum had cabinet/book shelves (put images of relatives)
-when a partiarc take beeswax, make mask of dead, put it in cabinet
Atrium of the House of Vettii
-Roman
-Republic
-open ceiling hole
-garden, copies of greek statue
-atrium: open entry way
1st style of wall painting
-roman
-republic
-wet fresco
-3d, indentation, relief comes out
-molding at top, decorative woodwork
-wanted to look like a marble building (rich imported stone)
-usually only in the hallway
1st style of wall painting
2nd style wall painting
-Roman
-Republic
-wet fresco
-illusionistic style
-artist goal: one point LP, atmospheric perspective to make them look like they are opening up
-characterized by heavy architectural elements
3rd style of wall painting
-roman
-republic
-wet fresco
-monocromatic: wall is emphasized
-rich decorative, fun, non serious elements
-center; little scene (usually of a tiny garden with statues, pavilion and trees, 4x4)
-go to spend leisure time
3rd style of wall painting
4th style of wall painting
-roman
-republic
-wet fresco
-combo of all 3 earlier wall paintings
4th style of wall painting
Roman Senate: Head of a Roman Patrician
-roman
-republic
-as republic goes on, need an artist to carve grandpa while hes still alive
-emphasize their age
-verism truth: what they actually done
-ideal: powerful, wealthy, old, experience
-eyes painted
-marble
Roman Senate: Head of a Roman Patrician
Funerary Reliefs
-roman
-republic
-grave markers
-libertinity: free slaves
-when you were enslaved by the romans, the first generation could not buy or earn freedom, next generation could, they would take back their name, high honor to have family name engraved on tomb
-proportions are off, not the same sense of individuality
-official art style comes off of this: two sculpture styles, more wealthy artisans and less wealthy
Funerary Reliefs
Early Empire
27 BCE-98 AD
-roman
Portrait of Augustus as a Priest
-Roman/ Early empire
-best sculptures will come to rome to make images of him
-have the sculptures in rome, ship out provinces, so everyone knows who the new emperor was
-likeness to be throughout their empire: starts in rome
-he will control own likeness (what people see of him)
-youthful, strong (similar to pharaohs)
-emperors will be shown as "papa"- main preist
-leader of all aspects: religion, military, and daily life
-NEW IDEAL: clean shaved, short cropped hair, no emotion, no imperfections
-adopted son of julius caesar: son of god, therefore he is legitimate
-god like perfection: son of god and trace his lineage back to venus
Portrait of Augustus as a Priest
Ara Pacis Augustae
-Roman/ Early Empire
-first major public monuments in rome
-alter: has a wall around it, elevated, exterior wall will be covered with figures that convey his idea to the people
-west side: where you drop off elements for alter
-back end: personification of rome (human represents an idea)
Ara Pacis Augustae
Tellus Frieze
-Roman/ Early Empire
-mother earth
-proclamation to "what did i do for you?"
-because he brought peace: mother earth is fat and happy, will bring plenty
-mother earth: mature adult, full figure, hefty
-propaganda: peace, happiness, joy
-greek style will be offical language: classical style
Tellus Frieze
Family Procession
-Roman/ Early Empire
-parade on the day the altar was dedicated
-everyones lined up: togas
-augustus's toga is ling: little next emperor is holding onto his toga
-all paint has fallen off, left with marble white
Pont du Gard, Nimes
-Roman/ Early Empire
-Way to get chariots and people around
-aqueduct: brings fresh water from mnt to city
-made of stone
-series of arches
Pont du Gard, Nimes
Vespasian: First of the Flavians
-Roman/ Early Empire
-Propaganda has to change
-New ruler/ standards
-going for aged, experienced
-"undo the last guys hot mess": reclaim the center city of rome and give it back to the people
-going for roman look: old, wrinkled, aged, experienced
Vespasian: First of the Flavians
Colosseum, Rome
-Roman/ Early Empire
-"i am going to give you entertainment"
-athletic events/ amphitheater
-concrete: cheap/ fire proof
-4 stories tall
-engaged columns/ ionic
Colosseum, Rome: Vaulting Systems
-Roman/ Early Empire
-tunnel vault (arch space)- one direction
-groin vault- 2 arches that intersect, creates a square area supported by columns: allows people to go in the vault/ freely move
Colosseum, Rome
Arch of Titus
-Roman/ Early Empire
-victory arch
-titus: chosen successor
1. base
2.arch
3.attic: latin inscription
4. bronze four horse chariot group with general/ emperor on top
-spandrel: winged victory
-coffers: indentations- lessens the weight
Arch of Titus
High Empire
Roman
98-284 AD
Trajans Forum
-Roman/ High Empire
-"i want to look old and wise but look perfect"
-perfect wavy hair, long old nose
Forum Rome
-Roman/ High empire
-needs to build big and traditional to "fit in'
-big statue of emperor on horse back
-number three building:
open on front end
statues of emperor
basilica: law court first and foremost also a large and enclosed space where troops would practice
Forum Rome
Basilica Ulpia
-Roman/ High empire
-main hall, large open floor
-similar to hypostyle hall: egypt
- stone, supporting timber roof: nave
sidde aisles
apse: semicircular projection (desk of where emperor is)
clerestory:elevation
Basilica Ulpia
Panthenon
-roman/ high empire
-temple- not a cult temple
-more of a "thanks" to the gods
-concrete
-the drum-the circle holding the dome: they left 7 inches for each 7 sky gods, most important was jupiter (zeus)
-coffered: similar to arch of titus
-perfection of a domed building
Panthenon
Antoninus Pius, Column Base
-roman/ high empire
-used to mark areas of rome
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