153 terms

Chapter 5 Anatomy Test

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Parts of the skeletal system
bones, joints, cartilages, ligaments
functions of the bones
support the body, protect organs, attachment site for muscles (movement), stores minerals and fats and site for blood cell formation
Hematopoiesis
blood cell formation; occurs in marrow cavities
How many bones does the adult skeleton have?
206
What are the two basic types of bone tissue?
compact and spongy bone
Compact bone
dense, smooth, and homogeneous
spongy bone
many open spaces, lots of surface area
Four classifications of bone
long, short, flat, irregular
Long bones; what do they contain and examples
Contain mostly compact bone with spongy bone at the ends; most bones of the limbs (femur and humerus)
Flat bones
two thin layers of compact bone sandwich a layer of spongy bone; skull, ribs, sternum
Sesamoid
type of short bone that forms within tendons (patella)
short bones
cube shaped; mostly spongy with an outer layer of compact; carpals and tarsals
examples of irregular bones
vertebrae and hip bones
diaphysis is composed of...
compact bone that surrounds the medullary cavity
periosteum
covers and protects the diaphysis; fibrous connective tissue membrane
epiphysis
End of a long bone; composed of mostly spongy bone
articular cartilage
external surface of epiphysis; hyaline cartilage; decreases friction at joint surface (smooth surface)
epiphyseal line
remnant of epiphyseal plate; adult bones
epiphyseal plate
hyaline cartilage in young, growing bone; causes the bone to grow in length
edosteum
lines the inside of the medullary cavity; made of connective tissue
medullary cavity
inside the shaft; contains yellow marrow and red marrow
yellow marrow
stores fat; adult bones
red marrow
blood cell formation in infants (until age 6 or 7)
bone markings
Sites of attachments for muscles, tendons, and ligaments; Passages for nerves and blood vessels
projections/processes
grow out from the bone surface; usually begin with "T"
depressions/cavities
indentions; begin with "F"
Osteocytes
mature bone cells in lacunae
lacunae
cavities in bone matrix that house osteocytes
Osteon
Lamallae
rings of lacunae situated around the central canal
Central (Haversian) Canal
opening in the center of the osteon; carries blood vessels and nerves
Canaliculi
radiate from the central canal to lacunae; connects all bone cells to a nutrient supply
Perforating (Volkmann's) canal
perpendicular to central canal, carries blood vessels and nerves
Ossification
bone formation
osteoblasts
bone forming cells
Hypercalcemia
high levels of calcium in the blood
closed fracture
break that does not penetrate the skin
open fracture
broken bone penetrates through the skin
closed reduction
bones are manually coaxed into position by physician's hands
open reduction
bones are secured with pins or wires during surgery
What are the four stages of the repair of bone fractures? (in order)
Hematoma, fibrocartilage callus, bony callus, bone remodeling
hematoma
blood filled swelling or bruise
Axial skeleton
forms the longitudinal axis; skull vertebral and bony thorax
What are the 8 cranial bones ?
frontal, occipital, parietal(2), ethmoid, sphenoid, temporal(2)
what are the 14 facial bones?
maxilla, palatine, lacrimal, zygomatic, nasal, vomer, inferior nasal conchae, mandible
coronal suture
between frontal and parietal bones
lamboidal suture (Skull)
between pareital and occipital
sagittal suture
between parietal bones
squamosal suture
between temporal and parietal bones
foramen magnum
large opening in base of occipital that allows the spinal cord to join with the brain
Alvelor process
sockets where teeth are
vomer
zygomatic bone
sphenoid
maxilla
zygomatic process
ethmoid
lacrimal
mandibular ramus
mandible body
paranasal sinuses
hollow portions of bones surrounding the nasal cavity
hyoid bone
doesn't articulate with any other bone; aids in swallowing and speech; movable base for tongue
vertebral column functions
axial support; extends from skull to pelvis
how many vertebral bones are there?
26
How many vertebrae are in the neck?
7 cervical
How many vertebra are in the chest region?
12 thoracic
How many vertebrae are in the lower back region?
5 lumbar
Sacrum
5 fused vertebrae; between hipbones/pelvis
coccyx
tailbone; fusion of 3-5 vertebrae
primary curvatures
form a "C"; present from birth; thoracic and sacral regions
secondary curvatures
Form an "S"; develop after birth; cervical and lumbar regions
vertebral body (centrum)
vertebral arch
pedicle
lamina
vertebral foramen
Spinous process of vertebra
transverse processes
articular processes
What does the bony thorax/thoracic cage consist of?
sternum, ribs, and thoracic vertebrae
intercostal spaces
spaces between the ribs
true ribs
1-7 attached to sternum
false ribs
8-12 indirectly attached to sternum
floating ribs
last two pairs of ribs; do not attach to sternum (11 and 12)
How many bones does the appendicular skeleton have?
126
What is the appendicular skeleton composed of?
limbs, pectoral girdle, pelvic girdle
jugular notch
xiphoid process
sternum
atlas
C1 vertebrae; allows you to nod "yes"
axis
C2; rotation for skull; allows you to indicate "no"
The thoracic vertebrae articulates with...
ribs
The sacrum forms the..
posterior wall of pelvis
Clavicle
helps prevent shoulder dislocation
Scapula
not directly attached to axial skeleton and are loosely held in place by trunk muscles;
gelnoid cavity
part of scapula; depression where arm bone fits in
acromion process
connects with clavicle
coracoid process
process above the glenoid cavity that permits muscle attachment
suprascapular notch
nerve passageway
The (pectoral) shoulder girdle has exceptional...
flexibility
Humerus
greater tubercle
lesser tubercle
Trochlea
capitulum
olecraneon
radius
lateral bone
ulna
medial forearm bone
Carpals
wrist bones;
8 bones (each hand)
Metacarpals
(knuckles) palm; 5 each hand
phalanges (hand)
How many phalanges are there?
14 in each hand (3 in finger and only 2 in thumb)
bones of pelvic girdle
ilium, ischium, pubis
ilium
ischium
pubis
what organs does the pelvis protect?
Reproductive organs, bladder, and part of the large intestine
Describe the female pelvis
Lighter, wider inlet, shallow round inlet, flat sacral promontory, the pubic arch is more rounded (all b/c women need to be able to birth a child)
bones of the lower limbs
femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges
femur
heaviest, strongest bone in the body
Acetabulum
where the head of the femur articulates with the coxal bone
lateral condyle of femur
medial condyle of femur
fibula
tibia
larger and medial; shin bone
The lateral and medial condyles form the...
knee joint (where the patella is)
patella
tarsals
7 ankle bones
the largest tarsals are
calcaneus (heel) and talus (ankle)
Metatarsals
5 bones of the foot.
Arches of the foot
two longitudinal and one transverse (3)
Osteoporosis
bone thinning disease; most common in older women; occurs b/c of lack of estrogen in menopause
Fontanels
fibrous membranes connecting the cranial bones; known as "soft spots"
Describe the skeletal changes of the male and female during puberty
female pelvis broadens; male skeleton becomes stronger/more robust
temporal
external acoustic meatus
infraorbital foramen
inferior nasal conchae
middle nasal concha of ethmoid bone
the pelvic girdle can hold the entire...
weight of upper body
true pelvis
surrounded by bone and lies inferior to flaring parts of the ilia; passage for infant at birth in women
false pelvis
superior to true pelvis
obturator foramen
ischial spine
iliac crest
pubic arch
greater sciatic notch
ischial tuberosity
sternum, ribs, and thoracic vertebrae
fibrous connective tissue
Dense tissue, large number of collagen fibers (connects bones)
head of femur
neck of femur
intervertebral discs
made out of fibrocartilage and help with shock
osteoclasts
Bone-destroying cells