Parts of the skeletal system
bones, joints, cartilages, ligaments
functions of the bones
support the body, protect organs, attachment site for muscles (movement), stores minerals and fats and site for blood cell formation
blood cell formation; occurs in marrow cavities
How many bones does the adult skeleton have?
What are the two basic types of bone tissue?
compact and spongy bone
dense, smooth, and homogeneous
many open spaces, lots of surface area
Four classifications of bone
long, short, flat, irregular
Long bones; what do they contain and examples
Contain mostly compact bone with spongy bone at the ends; most bones of the limbs (femur and humerus)
two thin layers of compact bone sandwich a layer of spongy bone; skull, ribs, sternum
type of short bone that forms within tendons (patella)
cube shaped; mostly spongy with an outer layer of compact; carpals and tarsals
examples of irregular bones
vertebrae and hip bones
diaphysis is composed of...
compact bone that surrounds the medullary cavity
covers and protects the diaphysis; fibrous connective tissue membrane
End of a long bone; composed of mostly spongy bone
external surface of epiphysis; hyaline cartilage; decreases friction at joint surface (smooth surface)
remnant of epiphyseal plate; adult bones
hyaline cartilage in young, growing bone; causes the bone to grow in length
lines the inside of the medullary cavity; made of connective tissue
inside the shaft; contains yellow marrow and red marrow
stores fat; adult bones
blood cell formation in infants (until age 6 or 7)
Sites of attachments for muscles, tendons, and ligaments; Passages for nerves and blood vessels
grow out from the bone surface; usually begin with "T"
indentions; begin with "F"
mature bone cells in lacunae
cavities in bone matrix that house osteocytes
rings of lacunae situated around the central canal
Central (Haversian) Canal
opening in the center of the osteon; carries blood vessels and nerves
radiate from the central canal to lacunae; connects all bone cells to a nutrient supply
Perforating (Volkmann's) canal
perpendicular to central canal, carries blood vessels and nerves
bone forming cells
high levels of calcium in the blood
break that does not penetrate the skin
broken bone penetrates through the skin
bones are manually coaxed into position by physician's hands
bones are secured with pins or wires during surgery
What are the four stages of the repair of bone fractures? (in order)
Hematoma, fibrocartilage callus, bony callus, bone remodeling
blood filled swelling or bruise
forms the longitudinal axis; skull vertebral and bony thorax
What are the 8 cranial bones ?
frontal, occipital, parietal(2), ethmoid, sphenoid, temporal(2)
what are the 14 facial bones?
maxilla, palatine, lacrimal, zygomatic, nasal, vomer, inferior nasal conchae, mandible
between frontal and parietal bones
lamboidal suture (Skull)
between pareital and occipital
between parietal bones
between temporal and parietal bones
large opening in base of occipital that allows the spinal cord to join with the brain
sockets where teeth are
hollow portions of bones surrounding the nasal cavity
doesn't articulate with any other bone; aids in swallowing and speech; movable base for tongue
vertebral column functions
axial support; extends from skull to pelvis
how many vertebral bones are there?
How many vertebrae are in the neck?
How many vertebra are in the chest region?
How many vertebrae are in the lower back region?
5 fused vertebrae; between hipbones/pelvis
tailbone; fusion of 3-5 vertebrae
form a "C"; present from birth; thoracic and sacral regions
Form an "S"; develop after birth; cervical and lumbar regions
vertebral body (centrum)
Spinous process of vertebra
What does the bony thorax/thoracic cage consist of?
sternum, ribs, and thoracic vertebrae
spaces between the ribs
1-7 attached to sternum
8-12 indirectly attached to sternum
last two pairs of ribs; do not attach to sternum (11 and 12)
How many bones does the appendicular skeleton have?
What is the appendicular skeleton composed of?
limbs, pectoral girdle, pelvic girdle
C1 vertebrae; allows you to nod "yes"
C2; rotation for skull; allows you to indicate "no"
The thoracic vertebrae articulates with...
The sacrum forms the..
posterior wall of pelvis
helps prevent shoulder dislocation
not directly attached to axial skeleton and are loosely held in place by trunk muscles;
part of scapula; depression where arm bone fits in
connects with clavicle
process above the glenoid cavity that permits muscle attachment
The (pectoral) shoulder girdle has exceptional...
medial forearm bone
8 bones (each hand)
(knuckles) palm; 5 each hand
How many phalanges are there?
14 in each hand (3 in finger and only 2 in thumb)
bones of pelvic girdle
ilium, ischium, pubis
what organs does the pelvis protect?
Reproductive organs, bladder, and part of the large intestine
Describe the female pelvis
Lighter, wider inlet, shallow round inlet, flat sacral promontory, the pubic arch is more rounded (all b/c women need to be able to birth a child)
bones of the lower limbs
femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges
heaviest, strongest bone in the body
where the head of the femur articulates with the coxal bone
lateral condyle of femur
medial condyle of femur
larger and medial; shin bone
The lateral and medial condyles form the...
knee joint (where the patella is)
7 ankle bones
the largest tarsals are
calcaneus (heel) and talus (ankle)
5 bones of the foot.
Arches of the foot
two longitudinal and one transverse (3)
bone thinning disease; most common in older women; occurs b/c of lack of estrogen in menopause
fibrous membranes connecting the cranial bones; known as "soft spots"
Describe the skeletal changes of the male and female during puberty
female pelvis broadens; male skeleton becomes stronger/more robust
external acoustic meatus
inferior nasal conchae
middle nasal concha of ethmoid bone
the pelvic girdle can hold the entire...
weight of upper body
surrounded by bone and lies inferior to flaring parts of the ilia; passage for infant at birth in women
superior to true pelvis
greater sciatic notch
sternum, ribs, and thoracic vertebrae
fibrous connective tissue
Dense tissue, large number of collagen fibers (connects bones)
head of femur
neck of femur
made out of fibrocartilage and help with shock