Terms in this set (153)

  • Parts of the skeletal system
    bones, joints, cartilages, ligaments
  • functions of the bones
    support the body, protect organs, attachment site for muscles (movement), stores minerals and fats and site for blood cell formation
  • Hematopoiesis
    blood cell formation; occurs in marrow cavities
  • How many bones does the adult skeleton have?
    206
  • What are the two basic types of bone tissue?
    compact and spongy bone
  • Compact bone
    dense, smooth, and homogeneous
  • spongy bone
    many open spaces, lots of surface area
  • Four classifications of bone
    long, short, flat, irregular
  • Long bones; what do they contain and examples
    Contain mostly compact bone with spongy bone at the ends; most bones of the limbs (femur and humerus)
  • Flat bones
    two thin layers of compact bone sandwich a layer of spongy bone; skull, ribs, sternum
  • Sesamoid
    type of short bone that forms within tendons (patella)
  • short bones
    cube shaped; mostly spongy with an outer layer of compact; carpals and tarsals
  • examples of irregular bones
    vertebrae and hip bones
  • diaphysis is composed of...
    compact bone that surrounds the medullary cavity
  • periosteum
    covers and protects the diaphysis; fibrous connective tissue membrane
  • epiphysis
    End of a long bone; composed of mostly spongy bone
  • articular cartilage
    external surface of epiphysis; hyaline cartilage; decreases friction at joint surface (smooth surface)
  • epiphyseal line
    remnant of epiphyseal plate; adult bones
  • epiphyseal plate
    hyaline cartilage in young, growing bone; causes the bone to grow in length
  • edosteum
    lines the inside of the medullary cavity; made of connective tissue
  • medullary cavity
    inside the shaft; contains yellow marrow and red marrow
  • yellow marrow
    stores fat; adult bones
  • red marrow
    blood cell formation in infants (until age 6 or 7)
  • bone markings
    Sites of attachments for muscles, tendons, and ligaments; Passages for nerves and blood vessels
  • projections/processes
    grow out from the bone surface; usually begin with "T"
  • depressions/cavities
    indentions; begin with "F"
  • Osteocytes
    mature bone cells in lacunae
  • lacunae
    cavities in bone matrix that house osteocytes
  • Osteon
  • Lamallae
    rings of lacunae situated around the central canal
  • Central (Haversian) Canal
    opening in the center of the osteon; carries blood vessels and nerves
  • Canaliculi
    radiate from the central canal to lacunae; connects all bone cells to a nutrient supply
  • Perforating (Volkmann's) canal
    perpendicular to central canal, carries blood vessels and nerves
  • Ossification
    bone formation
  • osteoblasts
    bone forming cells
  • Hypercalcemia
    high levels of calcium in the blood
  • closed fracture
    break that does not penetrate the skin
  • open fracture
    broken bone penetrates through the skin
  • closed reduction
    bones are manually coaxed into position by physician's hands
  • open reduction
    bones are secured with pins or wires during surgery
  • What are the four stages of the repair of bone fractures? (in order)
    Hematoma, fibrocartilage callus, bony callus, bone remodeling
  • hematoma
    blood filled swelling or bruise
  • Axial skeleton
    forms the longitudinal axis; skull vertebral and bony thorax
  • What are the 8 cranial bones ?
    frontal, occipital, parietal(2), ethmoid, sphenoid, temporal(2)
  • what are the 14 facial bones?
    maxilla, palatine, lacrimal, zygomatic, nasal, vomer, inferior nasal conchae, mandible
  • coronal suture
    between frontal and parietal bones
  • lamboidal suture (Skull)
    between pareital and occipital
  • sagittal suture
    between parietal bones
  • squamosal suture
    between temporal and parietal bones
  • foramen magnum
    large opening in base of occipital that allows the spinal cord to join with the brain
  • Alvelor process
    sockets where teeth are
  • vomer
  • zygomatic bone
  • sphenoid
  • maxilla
  • zygomatic process
  • ethmoid
  • lacrimal
  • mandibular ramus
  • mandible body
  • paranasal sinuses
    hollow portions of bones surrounding the nasal cavity
  • hyoid bone
    doesn't articulate with any other bone; aids in swallowing and speech; movable base for tongue
  • vertebral column functions
    axial support; extends from skull to pelvis
  • how many vertebral bones are there?
    26
  • How many vertebrae are in the neck?
    7 cervical
  • How many vertebra are in the chest region?
    12 thoracic
  • How many vertebrae are in the lower back region?
    5 lumbar
  • Sacrum
    5 fused vertebrae; between hipbones/pelvis
  • coccyx
    tailbone; fusion of 3-5 vertebrae
  • primary curvatures
    form a "C"; present from birth; thoracic and sacral regions
  • secondary curvatures
    Form an "S"; develop after birth; cervical and lumbar regions
  • vertebral body (centrum)
  • vertebral arch
  • pedicle
  • lamina
  • vertebral foramen
  • Spinous process of vertebra
  • transverse processes
  • articular processes
  • What does the bony thorax/thoracic cage consist of?
    sternum, ribs, and thoracic vertebrae
  • intercostal spaces
    spaces between the ribs
  • true ribs
    1-7 attached to sternum
  • false ribs
    8-12 indirectly attached to sternum
  • floating ribs
    last two pairs of ribs; do not attach to sternum (11 and 12)
  • How many bones does the appendicular skeleton have?
    126
  • What is the appendicular skeleton composed of?
    limbs, pectoral girdle, pelvic girdle
  • jugular notch
  • xiphoid process
  • sternum
  • atlas
    C1 vertebrae; allows you to nod "yes"
  • axis
    C2; rotation for skull; allows you to indicate "no"
  • The thoracic vertebrae articulates with...
    ribs
  • The sacrum forms the..
    posterior wall of pelvis
  • Clavicle
    helps prevent shoulder dislocation
  • Scapula
    not directly attached to axial skeleton and are loosely held in place by trunk muscles;
  • gelnoid cavity
    part of scapula; depression where arm bone fits in
  • acromion process
    connects with clavicle
  • coracoid process
    process above the glenoid cavity that permits muscle attachment
  • suprascapular notch
    nerve passageway
  • The (pectoral) shoulder girdle has exceptional...
    flexibility
  • Humerus
  • greater tubercle
  • lesser tubercle
  • Trochlea
  • capitulum
  • olecraneon
  • radius
    lateral bone
  • ulna
    medial forearm bone
  • Carpals
    wrist bones; 8 bones (each hand)
  • Metacarpals
    (knuckles) palm; 5 each hand
  • phalanges (hand)
  • How many phalanges are there?
    14 in each hand (3 in finger and only 2 in thumb)
  • bones of pelvic girdle
    ilium, ischium, pubis
  • ilium
  • ischium
  • pubis
  • what organs does the pelvis protect?
    Reproductive organs, bladder, and part of the large intestine
  • Describe the female pelvis
    Lighter, wider inlet, shallow round inlet, flat sacral promontory, the pubic arch is more rounded (all b/c women need to be able to birth a child)
  • bones of the lower limbs
    femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges
  • femur
    heaviest, strongest bone in the body
  • Acetabulum
    where the head of the femur articulates with the coxal bone
  • lateral condyle of femur
  • medial condyle of femur
  • fibula
  • tibia
    larger and medial; shin bone
  • The lateral and medial condyles form the...
    knee joint (where the patella is)
  • patella
  • tarsals
    7 ankle bones
  • the largest tarsals are
    calcaneus (heel) and talus (ankle)
  • Metatarsals
    5 bones of the foot.
  • Arches of the foot
    two longitudinal and one transverse (3)
  • Osteoporosis
    bone thinning disease; most common in older women; occurs b/c of lack of estrogen in menopause
  • Fontanels
    fibrous membranes connecting the cranial bones; known as "soft spots"
  • Describe the skeletal changes of the male and female during puberty
    female pelvis broadens; male skeleton becomes stronger/more robust
  • temporal
  • external acoustic meatus
  • infraorbital foramen
  • inferior nasal conchae
  • middle nasal concha of ethmoid bone
  • the pelvic girdle can hold the entire...
    weight of upper body
  • true pelvis
    surrounded by bone and lies inferior to flaring parts of the ilia; passage for infant at birth in women
  • false pelvis
    superior to true pelvis
  • obturator foramen
  • ischial spine
  • iliac crest
  • pubic arch
  • greater sciatic notch
  • ischial tuberosity
    sternum, ribs, and thoracic vertebrae
  • fibrous connective tissue
    Dense tissue, large number of collagen fibers (connects bones)
  • head of femur
  • neck of femur
  • intervertebral discs
    made out of fibrocartilage and help with shock
  • osteoclasts
    Bone-destroying cells