71 terms

Programming Logic and Design Chapter 1

The beginners programming guide to developing object oirents logic. The examples have been created to provide students with a sound background in logic, no matter what programming languages they eventually use to write programs
STUDY
PLAY
Hardware
the set of physical devices on a computer system
Software
is the set of instructions written by programmers that tell the computer what to do ; a set of computer programs
Programs
are the sets of xecutable instructions written by programmers
Programming
is the act of writing software instructions
Application software
comprises all the programs yo uapply to a task
system software
comprises the programs tha tyo uuse to manage your computer, including operating systems such as Windows or UNIX and other utility programs not directly used by end users
input
is the process of entering data into a system using hardware devices such as keyboards and mice
data items
include all the text, numbers, and other information that are processed by the computer
information
is the data that has been processed and is ready for input
processing
data items that may involve organizing them, checking them for accuracy, or performing mathematical operations on them.
Central Processing Unit.. CPU
is the hardware component that processes data
output
is the process of extracting information from a system through hardware such as a monitor or printer so that people can vier, interpert, and use the results.
Storage devices
hardware, such as disks or flash media, on which you can store data
Programming languages
Visual Basic, C#, C++, and Java are used to write programs
program code
writtem computer instructions
coding the program
is the act of writing program instructions
syntax
consists of language rules
computer memory
is a computers temporary internal storage
random access memory RAM
interal computer memory
run
to carry out a program's instructions
high-level
describes programming languages that are English-Like
low-level
describes languages that more closely reflect computer circuitry
lowest- level language
set of statements made up of 1s and 0s that the computer understands
machine language
is a computers on off circuitry language
compiler
translates a high level language into machine language and tells you if you have used a programming language incorrectly. it translate an entire program at once
interpreter
translates high level language into machine language one instruction at a time
binary language
consists of 1s and 0s and it is machine language
source code
the statements you write in a programming language before they are translated to object code
object code
is the machine language statements that have been translated from the source code.
Scripting languages
used to write programs that are typed directl from a keyboard. they are stored as text rather than as binary executable code
logic
is developed when you give instructions to the computer in a specific sequence, without leaving any instructions out ar adding extraneous instructions.
semantic errors
logical program errors
procedural programming
is a technique that focuses on the procedures programmers create to manipulate data
OOP Object Oriented Programming
a technique that focuses on objects or things. oop describes the objects features or attributes and their behaviors
attributes of an object
features it "has"
state or an object
made up of its attributes's values
behaviors of an object
things an object does
taking an object oriented approach
means defining the objects needed to accomplish a task and developing the objects so that each maintains its own data and carries out tasks when another object requests them
computer simulations
attemts to mimic real world activities so that thir process can be improved or so that users can better understand how the real world process operate
users/end users
people or entities for whom programs are written and who will beneift from using them.
Graphical User Interface, GUI
allows users to interact with a program in a graphical enviroment
software testers
professionals who test programs for accuracey
black box tests
software tests in which the tester does not know how the software works internall y but verifies that correct nput is derived from various input values
white box tests
are a type of software test in which the tester understands how the software works internally
object orientd analysis OOA is th eprocess of analyzing a system using an object-oriented approach
Object Oriented Design OOD is the process of desiging a system using an object oriented approach
data modeling
is the act of identifying all the objects you want to manipulate and how they relate to each other
entity types
describe the borad catagories of data items in a system
attributes
are the characteristics of entities
relationships
describe how entities communicate with and react to each other
class
a general catagory of objects
algorithm
is the sequence of steps necessary to solve any problem
desk checking
is the process of walking through a programs logic on paper without using a computer
syntax error
is an error in the language or grammar
logical errors
occur when incorrect insturctions are performed or when instructions are performed in the wrong order
test a program
execute it on a computer to determine if the input is correct
conversion
is the entire set of actions an organization must take to switch over using a new program or set of programs
maintenance
is the act of making changes to programs that are alrady finished and in production
pseudocode
is an english like representation of the logical steps it takes to solve a problem
flowchart
is a pictorial representation of the logical steps it takes to solve a problem
conventions
are standards of format and style that are selected for consistency while acknowledging that other customs might be used by others and be equally as correct.
input symbol
in a flowchart represented by a parallelogram
processing symbol
in a flowchart is represented by a rectangle
output symbol
in a flowchare is represented by a parallelogram
input output sybmol I/0
is a parallelogram used to diagram both input and output operations
terminal symbol
marks the beginning or end of a flowchart method or segment, represented by a lozenge
decision symbol
in a flowchart represented by a diamond
flowlines
are the arrows in a flowchart that show the sequence of steps carried out
program comments
nenexecuting statements that you add to a program for the purpose of documentation
text editor
program that you use to create simple text files
integrated development enviroment ( IDE)
a software package that provides an editor, compiler and other programming tools.
command line
is a location on you r computer screen at which you type text entries to communicate with the computers
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