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Campbell Biology Chapter 8
Terms in this set (21)
Which of the following is an example of potential rather than kinetic energy?
a molecule of glucose
Which term most precisely describes the cellular process of breaking down large molecules into smaller ones?
catabolism (catabolic pathways)
Anabolic pathways _____.
consume energy to build up polymers from monomers
Which of the following is a statement of the first law of thermodynamics?
Energy cannot be created or destroyed.
Which of the following types of reactions would decrease the entropy within a cell?
Chemical equilibrium is relatively rare in living cells. An example of a reaction at chemical equilibrium in a cell would be _____.
products are not being produced or used in any active metabolic pathway at that time in the cell
Choose the pair of terms that correctly completes this sentence: Catabolism is to anabolism as _____ is to _____.
Why is ATP an important molecule in metabolism?
It provides energy coupling between exergonic and endergonic reactions.
Which of the following is most similar in structure to ATP?
an RNA nucleotide
Catabolic pathways _____.
supply energy, primarily in the form of ATP, for the cell's work
When ATP releases some energy, it also releases inorganic phosphate. What happens to the inorganic phosphate in the cell?
It may be used to form a phosphorylated intermediate.
Which of the following is true of enzymes?
Enzymes increase the rate of chemical reaction by lowering activation energy barriers.
The lock-and-key analogy for enzymes applies to the specificity of enzymes _____.
binding to their substrate
You have discovered an enzyme that can catalyze two different chemical reactions. Which of the following is most likely to be correct?
Either the enzyme has two distinct active sites or the reactants involved in the two reactions are very similar in size and shape.
Reactants capable of interacting to form products in a chemical reaction must first overcome a thermodynamic barrier known as the reaction's _____.
Zinc, an essential trace element for most organisms, is present in the active site of the enzyme carboxypeptidase. The zinc most likely functions as _____.
a cofactor necessary for enzyme activity
A noncompetitive inhibitor decreases the rate of an enzyme reaction by _____.
changing the shape of the enzyme's active site
How might a change of one amino acid at a site, distant from the active site of an enzyme, alter an enzyme's substrate specificity?
by changing the shape of an enzyme
Why would enzyme reaction rate plateau at higher reactant concentrations?
Most enzyme molecules are occupied by substrate at high reactant concentrations.
HIV is the virus that causes AIDS. In the mid-1990s, researchers discovered an enzyme in HIV called protease. Once the enzyme's structure was known, researchers began looking for drugs that would fit into the active site and block it. If this strategy for stopping HIV infections were successful, it would be an example of what phenomenon?
A series of enzymes catalyze the reaction X → Y Z → A. Product A binds to the enzyme that converts X to Y at a position remote from its active site. This binding decreases the activity of the enzyme.
With respect to the enzyme that converts X to Y, substance A functions as _____.
an allosteric inhibitor
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