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Randy is recovering from an automobile accident in which he injured his head. The only noticeable psychological symptom of his injury is that he cannot remember what happened immediately prior to the accident. Randy's symptoms are typical of...
retrograde amnesia
Which example would most people take the longest to identify as a fruit (even though it technically is a fruit)?
olive
Sally is enrolled in a high school geometry course, which she describes as "drawing figures and figuring drawings." In a typical class, students draw geometric figures and use a formula to calculate an aspect of the figure such as its area. Each time Sally uses a formula she is making use of what psychologists call...
algorithms
What problem-solving strategies don't guarantee solutions but make efficient use of time?
heuristics
Seventy percent of the students in a classroom are women and 30 percent are men. One student is described as ambitious, athletic, and assertive. Why are most people likely to think this description refers to a male student?
They are using the representativeness heuristic.
A loose screw on the visor causes it to drop down while Ben drives; however, he keeps forgetting to take a screwdriver out to the car to fix it. When he notices the visor drop again, he reaches into his pocket for a dime he uses to tighten the screw holding the visor. What problem-solving difficulty did Ben overcome?
6.
a) relative comparison
b) functional fixedness
c) poor problem representation
d) the representative heuristic
Agatha Harkness-Smythe is determined to ban guns in the United States. Agatha could go to the library and look up studies on the linkage between guns and crime rates. Instead, Agatha just reads the local newspaper and only cuts out articles about robberies in which the "bad guy" used a firearm. Agatha is demonstrating...
confirmation bias
Howard Gardner and Robert Sternberg agree to be interviewed together on the topic of intelligence. At the end of the interview, what do you conclude is their major point of agreement?
Standardized tests do not assess the many facets of intelligence.
Which of the following is NOT one of the three areas of intelligence described by Sternberg?
exponential
According to Robert Sternberg, __________________ refers to the ability to break problems down into component parts, or analysis, for problem solving. This is the type of intelligence that is measured by intelligence tests and academic achievement tests.
crystallized and visual-motor abilities
Gardner and his associates are known for proposing ______.
the theory of multiple intelligences
Charles Spearman believed that intelligence is composed of ____________.
practical intelligence
Shalissa is described as being tactful and able to manipulate situations to her advantage. She is probably high in ___.
analytical intelligence
On a newly developed IQ test, an individual scores at the 150 level on one day, and a 110 two weeks later.
What does this test appear to lack? (hint: consider all possibilities)
reliability and validity
A test is said to be reliable if _________________.
its results agree with a more direct measure of what the test is designed to predict
What percent of the population has an intelligence quotient below 100?
10 percent
Because of the need to measure the IQ of people of varying ages, newer IQ tests base their assignment of
IQ scores on _____________.
how individuals compare to others their age
People are termed globally gifted in terms of intelligence if their IQ is above _______.
130
What percentage of the population is described as gifted, according to IQ standards?
1 percent
Which of the following statements about gifted people is true?
They are often skilled leaders.
____________ has been suggested by Goleman to be a more powerful influence on life than more
traditional views of intelligence.
Emotional intelligence
When we consider intelligence, it is important to remember that although _______ sets limits on a child's potential, it is the _______ that permits that potential to be actualized.
heredity; environment
Your little brother has a big ball of clay. While he watches, you roll the ball of clay into a long snake-like shape. He begins to cry because he thinks he has less clay now. Which of Piaget's stages is your brother likely to be in?
preoperational
According to Piaget, the stage of cognitive development between 2 and 7 years of age, in which the child learns to use language as a means of exploring the world, is the ______ stage.
preoperational
Whereas Piaget saw cognitive development as a result of individual discovery and a child's interaction with objects, Vygotsky attributed cognitive development to________.
interaction between a child and skilled people
Mothers who were unresponsive, insensitive, and coldly rejecting were associated with ____ attached infants.
avoidant
____________babies in Ainsworth's study were clinging and unwilling to explore, very upset by the stranger regardless of the mother's presence, protested mightily when the mother left, were hard to soothe, and had mixed reactions upon mother's return.
Ambivalent
Which one of the following is most likely to cause a problem for children during a conservation task?
centration
Kids are most likely to show an interest in playing games with rules during which of Piaget's stages?
concrete operational
Brad is in an electronics store with his parents. He looks at the CDs and thinks for a moment that he could grab one and put it beneath his coat. As he considers this possibility, he decides not to do it because he might get caught and his parents would punish him. What stage of moral development does Brad's decision represent?
preconventional
When faced with a conflict between law and conscience, Liz follows her conscience despite the personal risk. This would be characteristic of__________.
c) postconventional morality