28 terms

Chapter 24 The Chemistry Of Life Vocabulary

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The pocket or crevice to which a substrate bindes in an enzyme- catalyzed reaction
Amino Acid
An organic molecule that has both and amino group (-NH2) and a carboxyl group (-COOH)
Anabolism
Refers to the metabolic reactions through which cells use energy and small building blocks to build large, complex molecules needed to carry out cell functions and for cell structures
ATP
Adenosine triphosphate- a nucleotide that functions as the universal energy - strong molecule in living cells
Carbohydrate
Compounds that contain multiple hydroxyl groups, plus an aldehyde or a ketone functional group, and function in living thins to provide immediate and stored energy
Catabolism
Refers to metabolic reactions that cells undergo to extract energy and chemical building blocks fro large, complex biological molecules such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids
Cellular Respiration
The process in which glucose is broken down in the presence of oxygen gas to produce carbon dioxide, water and large amounts of energy
Denaturation
The process in which a protein's natura, intricate three- dimensional structure is disrupted
Disaccharide
Forms when two monosaccharides bond together
Enzyme
A highly specific, powerful biological catalyst
Fatty Acid
A long- chain carboxylic acid that usually has between 12 and 24 carbon atoms and can be saturated (no double bouns), or unsaturated (one or more double bonds)
Fermentation
The process in which glucose is broken down in the absence of oxygen, producing either ethanol, carbon dioxide, and energy (alcoholic fermentation) or lactic acid and energy (lactic acid fermentation)
Lipid
Large, nonpolar biological molecules that vary in structure, store energy in living organisms, and make up most of the structure of cell membranes
Metabolism
The sum of the many chemical reactions that occur in living cells
Monosaccharide
The simplest carbohydrates, which are aldehydes or ketones that also have multiple hydroxyl groups; aslo called simple sugars
Nucleic Acid
A nitrogen-containing biological polymer that is involved in the storage and transmission of genetic information
Nucleotide
The monomer that makes up a nucleic acid; consists of a nitrogen base, an inorganic phosphate group, an da five- carbon monosaccharide sugar
Peptide
A chain of two more amino acids links by peptide bonds
Peptide Bond
The amide bond that joins two amino acids
Phospholipid
A triglyceride in which one of the fatty acids is replaced by a polar phosphate group
Photosynthesis
The complex process that concerts energy from sunlight to chemical energy in the bonds of carbohydrates
Polysaccharide
A complex carbohydrate, which is a polymer of simple sugars that contains 12 or more monomer units
Protein
An organic polymer made up of animo acids linked together by peptide bonds that can function as an enzyme, transport important chemical substances, or provide structure in organisms
Saponification
The hydrolysis of the ester bonds of a triglyceride using an aqueous solution of a strong base to form carboxylate salts and glycerol; is used to make soaps
Steroid
Lipids that have multiple cyclin rings in their structure
Triglyceride
Forms when three fatty acids are bonded to a glycerol backbond through ester bonds; can be either solid or liquid at room temperature
Wax
A type of lipid that is formed by combining a fatty acid with a long- chain alcohol; is made by both plants and animals
Substrate
A reactant in an enzyme- catalyzed reaction that binds to specific sits on enzyme molecules
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