How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

79 terms

Gender Development

STUDY
PLAY
In psychology, _____ is defined as the biologically and socially influenced characteristics by which people define male and female.
gender
A single gene on the _____ chromosome plays a crucial role in the prenatal development of the testes.
Y
A _____ is a set of expected behaviors for males and females.
gender role
The average woman is different from the average man in which of the following ways?
She is 5 inches shorter.
A single gene on the Y chromosome plays a crucial role in the prenatal development of the _____.
testes
_____ theory assumes that children conceptualize what it means to be male or female and then they adjust their behavior accordingly.
Gender schema
Among your 46 chromosomes, _____ are unisex.
forty-five (or 45)
A single _____ on the _____chromosome plays a crucial role in the prenatal development of the testes.
gene; Y
In the United States as of 30 years ago, men were expected to initiate dates and women to select wedding gifts. This best illustrates aspects of _____.
gender roles
Arlo tells you he is certain he wants to have a career in computer science. You tell him you are not surprised, because you read in your textbook that men orient themselves more to _____ and women orient themselves more to _____.
things; people
The average woman in the United States enters puberty _____ sooner than the average man.
two years
In the United States as of 30 years ago, men were expected to initiate dates and women to select wedding gifts. This best illustrates aspects of:
gender roles
Men report that their most intimate and nurturing friendships tend to be with _____.
women
Violet has noticed that her breasts are getting larger, and she will soon need to wear a bra. She is experiencing changes in her _____ sex characteristics.
secondary
A(n) _____ is a set of expected behaviors for males or females.
gender role
Men are 4 times more likely to suffer _____ than women.
alcoholism
A male has a(n) _____ combination in the _____.
XY; 23rd pair of chromosomes
Your neighbors have three children, and both parents work. Without fail, whenever there is a sick child in the family, the expectation is that the mother will stay home to care for the child. The mother is fulfilling a set of expectations called a gender _____.
role
Compared to women, men are more likely to:
commit suicide.
Female breasts are to secondary sex characteristics as male _____ are to primary sex characteristics.
testes
Because 14-year-old Ferris believes that crying is a feminine trait, he has difficulty admitting that a movie makes him tearful. His experience best illustrates dynamics highlighted by _____ theory.
gender schema
In his business meetings, Mark is very inclusive of his colleagues and welcomes their opinions, listening intently when they are speaking. This is behavior is somewhat unusual, because men are usually more _____ than women.
directive
A female has a(n) _____ combination in the 23rd pair of chromosomes.
XX
Six-year-old Fabian likes to fix things with his Dad around the house. He grabs his toy tools and sometimes even picks up a real screwdriver to try and help Dad fix whatever is broken. This is best explained by _____ theory.
social learning
In a study on aggression, a group of university students were given an experimental task intended to be purposely frustrating. Then, the participants were given a task that forced them to administer (fake) electric shocks to another participant. Given what is known about gender differences and aggression, it is not surprising that _____ administered more painful electric shocks.
men (or males)
Jamie is 14 and has noticed that her jeans are fitting differently; her hips are much curvier than they were a few months ago. She is noticing changes in her _____ sex characteristics.
secondary
Menarche is to a girl's sexual development as _____ is to a boy's sexual development.
spermarche
Maddy has noticed that her breasts are getting larger, and she will soon need to wear a bra. She is experiencing changes in her _____ sex characteristics.
secondary
Almost all the girls in a class are taller than the boys. Most likely the girls and boys are:
12.
Andrew is starting to notice facial hair and hair under his arms. His voice also seems to be deepening. He is experiencing changes in his _____ sex characteristics.
secondary
The acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role is called:
gender typing.
Ovaries are to _____ as menarche is to _____.
testes; spermache
Gabriel enjoys hunting, playing football, and wrestling more than the other boys, while Susan enjoys talking to her friends and taking care of her younger siblings. We can say that Gabriel is exhibiting traditionally _____ traits, while Susan is exhibiting traditionally feminine traits as they are highly gender typed.
masculine
Female _____ are to secondary sex characteristics as male testes are to primary sex characteristics.
breasts
Katie is 14 and has noticed that her jeans are fitting differently; her hips are much curvier than they were a few months ago. She is noticing changes in her _____ sex characteristics.
secondary
Our own concepts of masculinity and femininity that influence our comprehension of the world are called gender _____.
schemas
You are researching play style differences between boys and girls during outdoor recess. You notice that the girls spend more time _____ while the boys spend more time participating in rough-and-tumble play.
talking
In a study on aggression, a group of university students were given an experimental task intended to be purposely frustrating. Then, the participants were given a task that forced them to administer (fake) electric shocks to another participant. Given what is known about gender differences and aggression, who do you think administered more painful electric shocks?
Men administered more painful electric shocks.
_____ assumes that children learn gender-linked behaviors by observing and imitating others, and through the rewards and punishments they receive for their imitation.
Social learning theory
Jenny has agreed to babysit for a family that has a 6-year-old boy and an 8-year-old girl. What can Jenny possibly anticipate with respect to the behavioral differences between the children?
The girl will spend more time talking to Jenny, while the boy will spend more time in physically active play.
Donna's parents divorced when she was a little girl. Her mother works two jobs and they eat a lot of fast food. It is likely that Donna will:
mature at an earlier age.
_____ is to a girl's sexual development as spermarche is to a boy's sexual development.
Menarche
_____ is to a girl's sexual development as _____ is to a boy's sexual development.
Menarche; spermarche
When 6-year-old Sara imitates her mother by carefully wrapping and setting out presents for the holiday celebration, she is praised and given holiday cookies. Sara's learning of gender-linked behaviors is best explained by:
social learning theory.
The acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role is called gender _____.
typing
You have a limited budget for your research, so you need to focus on a small sample of individuals who are most likely to develop alcoholism and antisocial personality disorder. Given what is known about gender differences, which of the following groups would you choose?
a group of adult males
You have a limited budget for your research, so you need to focus on a small sample of individuals who are most likely to develop alcoholism and antisocial personality disorder. Given what is known about gender differences, you should focus on a sample made up of a group of _____.
adult males
Our own concepts of masculinity and femininity that influence our comprehension of the world are called gender:
schemas.
Your neighbors have three children, and both parents work. Without fail, whenever there is a sick child in the family, the expectation is that the mother will stay home to care for the child. The mother is fulfilling a set of expectations called a:
gender role.
Female breasts are to _____ as male testes are to _____.
secondary sex characteristics; primary sex characteristics
Six-year-old Joe likes to fix things with his dad around the house. He grabs his toy tools and sometimes even picks up a real screwdriver to try and help dad fix whatever is broken. This is best explained by:
social learning theory.
Shara is genetically female, but was exposed to excess testosterone during prenatal development. As a young girl, she was often described as a "tomboy." She would dress and play in a way more typical of boys than girls. What is the MOST LIKELY reason for this?
Her exposure to excess testosterone caused her to act more like a boy.
Your married friend Gwen is quite upset. She asks you why she, rather than her husband, is always the one who cooks, cleans, and takes care of the children the majority of the time. You tell her all of the following EXCEPT that:
employed women have more time to devote to taking care of the children.
In her business meetings, Padma is very vocal with her opinions and even slightly intimidating to her colleagues. This is behavior is somewhat unusual, because women tend to be more _____ than men.
democratic
Men are about _____ times more likely to suffer alcoholism than women.
four
Because 14-year-old George believes that crying is a feminine trait, he has difficulty admitting that a movie makes him tearful. His experience best illustrates dynamics highlighted by:
gender schema theory.
Vera tells you she is certain she wants to have a career in nursing. You tell her you are not surprised, because you read in your textbook that men orient themselves more to things and women orient themselves more to _____.
people
Compared to women, men are more likely to successfully _____.
commit suicide
Compared with males, females are more likely to base their sense of personal identity on their:
social relationships.
Among your _____ chromosomes, _____ are unisex.
46; 45
As adults, women take more pleasure in talking face to face, and they are more likely to use conversation to explore relationships. This is because women are typically more _____ than men.
interdependent
When 6-year-old Claire imitates her mother, carefully wrapping and setting out presents for the holiday celebration, she is praised and given holiday cookies. Claire's learning of gender-linked behaviors is best explained by _____ theory.
social learning
In psychology, _____ refers to the biologically and socially influenced characteristics by which people define male and female.
gender
Compared to women, men tend to be LESS vulnerable to depression and _____.
anxiety
In everyday interactions, men are more likely to state their opinions, and women to offer support. However, women tend to become more assertive, and men more empathetic, when they reach _____.
middle age
Compared with males, females are more likely to base their sense of personal identity on their _____.
social relationships
The acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role is called _____ typing.
gender
Men report that their most intimate and nurturing friendships tend to be:
with women.
_____ theory assumes that children learn gender-linked behaviors by observing and imitating others and through the rewards and punishments they receive for their imitation.
Social learning
The average woman enters puberty about two years _____ than the average man.
sooner
_____ assumes that children conceptualize what it means to be male or female and then they adjust their behavior accordingly.
Gender schema theory
A female has a(n) _____ combination in the _____.
XX; 23rd pair of chromosomes
A male has a(n) XY combination in the _____ pair of chromosomes.
23
Compared to men, women are at about _____ risk for eating disorders.
10 times greater
Compared with males, females are more likely to base their sense of _____ on their social relationships.
personal identity
Compared to men, women are about 10 times _____ likely to have for eating disorders.
more
Compared to women, men tend to be LESS vulnerable to _____ and anxiety.
depression
In everyday interactions, men are more likely to state their opinions, and women to offer support. However, women tend to become more assertive, and men more empathetic:
in middle age.
Compared to women, men tend to be LESS vulnerable to:
depression and anxiety.