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psychology exam 2
Terms in this set (87)
thoughts, feelings, and sensations are clear and organized, you feel alert.
alerted state of consciousness
thoughts are fuzzy, less alert, thoughts may take bizarre turns
repeating patterns of behavior that run about 24 hours
restorative theory of sleep
sleep is necessary to restore chemicals in the brain and repair cells in the body
theory that says what you learn during the day is processed and stored when you sleep.
Fast brain waves of 14 to 40 cycles per second produced when awake and alert
Brain waves of 4 to 7 cycles per second, produced when in stages N2 of sleep, also produced during emotional stress, related to learning disabilities
Brain waves of 8 to 13 cycles per second, produced when in a quiet resting state and pre-sleep.
Large slow brain waves produced when in deep levels of sleep (stage N3)
Period of sleep when your brain waves show an awake pattern but you can't move your muscles
Dreams that tend to occur in the early morning in which you are aware that you are dreaming and where you can control the content of the dream
Sigmund Freud's Wish Fulfillment theory
Theory of dreams which believes that conflicts, events and desires are represented symbolically in dreams
Activation-Synthesis theory of dreams
Theory that believes that during dreaming various parts of the cortex are activated by input from the Pons. The Cortex then makes up a story to make sense out of the random inputs
Theory of dreaming that believes that the brain uses information learned or experienced to create dream material. Real life can impact what we dream about
Problem Focused Approach
Dream content represents preoccupations of waking life such as relationship problems, school issues, work issues
Anxiety REM nightmares
This type of dream tends to occur late in the sleep cycle at the end of a long REM period and includes common psychological contents such as being chased by people or monsters, falling or getting attacked or killed
REM behavior disorder
Disorder that occurs when neurons in the Pons that prevent person from moving don't inhibit motor neurons in large muscles
This occurs in stage 4 sleep when a person does not have large muscle paralysis so can get up and move around. It occurs mostly in children.
Sleep disorder characterized by fitful sleep with breathing problems, accompanied by frequent awakenings when breathing stops
Taking longer than a half hour to fall asleep, waking up too early with too little sleep, or repeatedly waking up during the night
Disorder in which a person suddenly falls asleep no matter what he or she is doing, and goes immediately into REM sleep. It also occurs in some breeds of dogs and in goats.
The processing of putting information into memory
The process of keeping information in memory
the process of accessing information in memory
Focusing awareness on a narrow range of stimuli or events
The more you do this, the better you will encode information
Using this allows us to access information from memory that we didn't know we even had stored.
meaning of words and visual images
According to Alan Paivio we encode verbal information two ways. These are
When you make information you are trying to learn personally meaningful
These types of words are harder to recall because you cannot easily encode them with a visual image
man, bridge, river, watch, fish
5 words I told you to remember
Preserves information in its original sensory form and has a fairly large capacity but very short duration
Information is in an active, readily available state but it decays rapidly if not rehearsed
capacity of short-term memory
7 +/- 2 Chunks of information
Any meaningful unit of information such as a number, a letter, a word, a phrase
Repeating something over and over to keep it in memory
Memory for well-learned skills which may be hard to verbalize
An example of this type of memory is being able to discuss all that you know about dogs
Your personal memories for events in your life.
Remembering things such as to call someone, or take your medicine, or bring something with you
Recollecting things from that past, even back to childhood
Vivid and accurate memories of significant or catastrophic events
When asked for a word beginning with a letter is faster to find than when asked for a word ending with a letter because of this
Organized unit of knowledge or general knowledge of objects and events
recall the words in categories
If you are given a list of words to remember without being told that the words all belong in categories, you will tend to do this on recall
An organized sequence of memories for what to do in a particular church denomination or what to do in a restaurant
To bring back to mind such as with essay and short-answer tests
A form of remembering when something previously experienced is again encountered
tip of the tongue phenomenon
Temporary inability to remember something along with the subjective feeling that it is just out of reach
Stimuli that help you gain access to memories
When you remember something by putting yourself back in the context in which you learned it you are using this.
ineffective encoding or encoding failure
Forgetting because we never encode the information into memory to begin with.
Memory that fades away from disuse
New information interferes with the ability to recall old information.
The prior existence of old memories makes it harder to recall newer memories.
When you know you have the information stored but can't get access to it
An attentionally-limited system that selects and directs material into either of two other systems
Holds sequences of acoustic or speech-based items
Holds visually and/or spatially encoded items and arrays
Contiguity or association
When 2 events are presented together in time a bond is formed between them
Are motivated to behave only when there is a need
learn through contiguity
Unlearned natural stimulus which causes a reflexive response
Reflexive response to some stimulus
Neutral arbitrary stimulus which prior to conditioning does NOT elicit the unconditioned response but after conditioning it does
Weakening of a learned response which occurs when the conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with the unconditioned stimulus
Reinstatement or Spontaneous Recovery
Reappearance of a learned response after its apparent extinction
In Pavlov's research dogs would respond to different tones of the bell automatically
Responding to only a specific conditioned stimulus which has to be trained
He conditioned an emotional fear response into an infant
The white rat in Watson's experiment with Little Albert became this
The paradigm that Watson used - conditioned emotional response - is now more widely used than ever in this field
cats in a puzzle box
Thorndike's research on Instrumental Learning involved this study
law of effect
Thorndike's "Law" which states that those behaviors which are followed by a "satisfying state of affairs" will tend to be repeated
An event which, when added to a situation, decreases the frequency of a response
An event which, when removed from a situation, increases the frequency of the response
Adding something to increase a behavior
Taking away privileges such as TV, cell phones, internet access, etc. in order to decrease an unwanted behavior
The process of reinforcing successive approximations to the desired behavior which can be used to train complex behaviors in animals
Continuous schedule of reinforcement
A reward is given after every response. Usually used in initial training
Variable ratio schedule of reinforcement
Gambling behavior is usually hard to extinguish because it is on this schedule of reinforcement.
When a reward is given after a fixed period of time as long as one response is given after that time.
Pop quizzes given in class in order to increase the behavior of students reading the textbook but students never know when they are coming is on this schedule
Generalization in Operant Conditioning
Involves engaging in previous learned behaviors in response to new situations that resemble those in which the behaviors were first learned.
Discrimination in Operant Conditioning
Involves making distinctions between similar situations in order to respond appropriately to each.
When an animal behaves as if there were a causal relationship between its behavior and the presentation of a reward when in fact that relationship does not exist.
Project conducted by Skinner to develop a method of defending the country.
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