76 terms

Hypo & hyper: K, CA, Na, etc. S & S.

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Hyponatremia
Fluid balances
Hyperkalemia
Muscle cramps (unsure)
Hypokalemia
Muscle weakness
Hypercalcemia
Muscle weakness
Hypocalcemia
Osteoporosis
Hyponatremia
Mental status changes
Hyperkalemia
irregular heart rate.
Hypokalemia
weak pulse.
Hypercalcemia
kidney stones.
Hypocalcemia
hyperactive reflexes.
Hyponatremia
< 135 m/Eq/L
Hyponatremia
Dehydration
Hyponatremia
Disoriented
Hyponatremia
Confusion
Hyponatremia
Personality changes
Hyponatremia
nausea/vomiting
Hyponatremia
diarrhea
Hypernatremia
>145 mEq/L
Hypernatremia
Thirsty
Hypernatremia
Mental status changes
Hypernatremia
Agitation.
Hypernatremia
Confusion.
Hypernatremia
Personality changes
Hypernatremia
Seizures.
Hypernatremia
Muscle twitching.
Hypernatremia
Unusual contractions.
Hypernatremia
Skeletal muscle weakness that can effect the diaphragm & lead to resp. failure. (not sure)
This is a mineral & is primarily stored in bones & teeth:
Calcium.
A small amount of this mineral is found in extra-cellular fluid:
Calcium.
The normal value for serum Ca is this:
4.5-5.5 mEq/L.
Minimal changes in Ca level can do this:
Have major negative effects in the body.
This mineral is needed for the proper functioning of excitable tissues (especially cardiac muscle):
Calcium.
Hypocalcemia occurs when the serum Ca level falls below this:
4.5 mEq/L.
A woman who is postmenopausal is most at risk for this:
Hypocalcemia.
As a woman ages, intake of this mineral typically declines:
Calcium.
Most patients develop hypocalcemia slowly d/t these:
Chronic disease or poor intake.
What gland recognizes a decrease in Ca?
The Parathyroid gland.
What gland stimulates the bone to release some of it's stored Ca?
The Parathyroid gland.
Hypocalcemia can occur as a result of this:
Inadequate absorption of Ca from the intestines (ie: Crohn's Disease).
What disease of the intestines can lead to a decrease in Ca absorbtion?
Crohn's Disease.
What disease of the intestines can lead to a decrease in Ca absorbtion?
Chronic inflammatory bowel disease.
Hypocalcemia can occur as a result of this:
Chronic inflammatory bowel disease.
Insufficient intake of Vit D can prevent this:
Calcium absorption.
Calcium absorption can be insufficient d/t insufficient intake of this:
Vitamin D.
What Vitamin aids in Ca absorption?
Vitamin D.
Hypocalcemia can occur as a result of this:
Conditions that interfere w/the production of Parathyroid Hormone.
These are conditions which can interfere with the production of Parathyroid Hormone:
Partial or complete surgical removal of the Thyroid.
These are conditions which can interfere with the production of Parathyroid Hormone:
Partial or complete surgical removal of the Parathyroids.
Post-menopausal women lack this hormone that helps prevent bone loss:
Estrogen.
Pts w/hyperphosphatemia often experience this:
Hypocalcemia.
Low CA in Pts d/t Hyperphosphatemia are typically those who have this problem:
Renal failure.
Renal failure causes this:
Hyperphosphatemia, l/t hypocalcemia.
Ca and this mineral have an inverse relationship:
Phosphate.
Phostphate and this mineral have an inverse relationship:
Calcium.
When Ca levels go up:
Phosphate levels go down.
When Ca levels go down:
Phosphate levels go up.
When Phosphate levels go up:
Ca levels go down.
When Phosphate levels go down:
Ca levels go up.
Tums is high in this:
Calcium.
Acute hypocalcemia can occur d/t this:
Surgery.
Acute hypocalcemia can occur d/t this:
Acute Pancreatitis.
These are the two simple classic tests to assess for hypocalcemia:
Trousseau's Sign, Chvostek's Sign.
This is a simple classic way to assess for hypocalcemia:
Trousseau's Sign.
This is a simple classic way to assess for hypocalcemia:
Chvostek's Sign.
The CHeek tapping CHeek twitCHing test to CHeck for hypocalcemia is:
Chvostek's Sign.
Jacque's Cousteau used depth & air gauges. You use a blood pressure gauge to check for this hypocalcemia sign:
Trousseau's Sign.
'Trousseau' rhymes with this body part where it is done to check for hypocalcemia:
Elbow.
This is how many mins to leave the BP cuff on the elbow during a Trousseau's Test (to check for hypoCa):
1-4 mins.
If the face twitches/cheek twitches during a Chvotsek's test the test is:
Positive.
If the fingers and hand spasms and the hand goes into palmar flexion during the Trousseau's test, the result is:
Positive.
Hyponatremia
Increased heart rate.
Hyponatremia
Increase and irregular heart rate.
Hyponatremia
Mental status changes.
Hyponatremia
Hyperactive deep tendon reflexes.
Hyponatremia
Increased GI motility.
Hyponatremia
Diarrhea and abdominal cramping.