66 terms

# ICP FINAL EXAM 2013-2014

###### PLAY
wave
a disturbance that transfers energy from one place to another
amplitude
for transverse waves: the distance between the resting point (or equilibrium) to the crest or trough
frequency
the number of waves passing a fixed point in a certain amount of time; it is based partly on wavelength (longer wavelengths take a longer time to pass) and partly on the speed the wave travels
medium
any substance that a wave moves through
mechanical wave
waves that transfer energy through matter
wavelength
the distance from one wave crest to the very next crest. (This may also be measured from trough to trough.)
reflection
the bouncing back of a wave as it strikes a barrier
refraction
the bending of a wave as it enters a new medium at an angle other than 90 degrees
diffraction
the spreading out of waves through an opening or around the edges of an obstacle
interference
the meeting and combining of waves
destructive interference
when waves cancel each other out
constructive interference
when waves combine to a larger amplitude
2 relationships for waves
1) speed and frequency = directly proportional
(as speed goes up, frequency goes up)
2) wavelength and frequency = inversely proportional
(as wavelength gets longer, frequency goes down)
reflection examples
refraction examples
a straw looks "broken" when you look at it in a glass of water (because the light bends when it enters the water)
diffraction examples
light will bend around a lampshade; sounds can be heard even if you are hiding behind something
EM Wave
electromagnetic wave; moves energy through space (sometimes empty space, sometimes through a medium - DOES NOT REQUIRE A MEDIUM)
Examples of EM Waves
Examples of mechanical waves
Sound, ocean waves, earthquakes
Temperature
the AVERAGE kinetic energy of an object's particles due to non-directional motion at the atomic level
Heat flow
always goes from hot to cold
Conduction
the direct transfer of heat from one substance to another substance that it is touching
Convection
the transfer of heat by the circulation or movement of a liquid or gas
the transfer of heat by rays or waves
Conduction (examples)
stovetop, seat-warmer
Convection (examples)
oven, blood (circulating), furnace
sun, heat lamp
Melting point of water in °F
32°F
Melting point of water in °C
0°C
Melting point of water in K
273K
Boiling point of water in °F
212°F
Boiling point of water in °C
100°C
Boiling point of water in K
373K
Absolute Zero
the temperature at which particles stop moving entirely (impossible to actually reach)
Heat
the TOTAL kinetic energy of an object's particles due to non-directional motion at the atomic level
converting Celsius to Kelvin
C + 273 = K
converting Fahrenheit to Kelvin
must convert to Celsius first, THEN to Kelvin
Which temperature scale can be used for calculations in science?
Kelvins
Why do we have the Kelvin scale?
1) Absolute zero is zero
2) There are no negative temperatures
specific heat
The price you pay (in energy) to change the temperature of something.
high specific heat
difficult to change the temperature
example of high specific heat
water
low specific heat
easy to change the temperature
example of low specific heat
metal
SI unit for speed/velocity
m/s (meters per second)
SI unit for acceleration
m/s² (meters per second squared)
Positive accelerations
speed is increasing
Negative accelerations
speed is decreasing
Acceleration is zero
the object is not chaning speed (is not moving or is moving with constant speed)
Positive velocity
object moving forward
Negative velocity
object moving backwards
Velocity is zero
object is not moving
Velocity
speed and direction
Graph: distance vs. time (slope)
slope = velocity
On a distance vs. time graph, constant velocity is represented by
A straight line
(distance vs. time) constant speed forward
straight line, positive slope
(distance vs. time) standing still
straight line, slope = 0 (line is flat)
(distance vs. time) speeding up (accelerating)
smiling curve (slope gets steeper and steeper)
(distance vs. time) slowing down
frowning curve (slope gets flatter and flatter)
friction
the force that opposes motion between two surfaces that are touching
freefall
when the only force acting on an object is gravity
equal and opposite forces
whenever a force is exerted, there is another force that is equal in size and opposite in direction
inertia
objects in motion tend to stay in the same motion; objects at rest tend to stay at rest
momentum
mass x speed
zero (momentum)
an object at rest has ______ momentum
SI Unit for force
N (Newton)