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Chapter 5 Benchmark Notecards
Terms in this set (26)
The Kingdon of Kerma
-Cattle herders settled 2000 B.C.
-Lived in Nubia which became Kush
-Rainfall made soil fertile in Nubia
-Grew beans, yams, rice, and grains and hunted.
The Rise of Kerma:
-First kingdom grew wealthy from agriculture and gold.
-Nile linked Egypt as trade partner
-Egyptians obtained cattle, gold, incense, ivory, giraffes, leopards, enslaved people, and hired Nubians to serve in Egyptian armies.
Geographical Locations of Kush and Egypt
-Hunters and gatherers migrated around 5000 BC
-Moved from dry areas in Africa and SW Asia
-Built villages that grew into farming settlements.
-Northern settlers called their land Kemet = "Black Land", for the dark, rich soil.
-Developed along the Nile River valley and influenced one another such as Egypt in the north (Egyptians) Kush (Nubia) in the south (Kushites, Nubians)
Physical Boundaries allow Civilizations to Develop Peacefully
North: delta marshes- stopped invaders traveling by sea.
South: cliffs and sharp boulders; cataracts - prevented attack by river.
East: Eastern Desert - extends to the Red Sea
West: Libyan Desert forms part of Sahara
Cultural Diffusion Between Egypt and Kush
Egyptian gods were worshipped in Kush.
Kushites built smaller pyramids based on Egyptian designs.
Kushite people asked Egyptian gods to bless their rulers.
Family was the most important social structure.
Men = head of family.
Women had more rights than women in other early civilizations.
-taught to respect adults.
-few went to school
-married in their teens
Family structure varied by social class.
-upper class: nuclear families (parents & children)
-farmers: extended families (older adults and their married children and their families)
Waterways of Egypt
The Nile River flowed north but wind patterns moved boats south.
The Mediterranean Sea provided trade routes in the north.
The Red Sea provided trade routes in the east.
Surplus food encourages trade and expanded choice of occupation.
Egyptian caravans carried goods to:
-Nubia in the south.
-Mesopotamia in the northeast.
-Phoenicia in the north.
Life in Ancient Egypt: The Old Kingdom
Time period: 2600 BC to 2200 BC
-built magnificent cities
-formed unified government called theocracy, one ruler controlled religious and political affairs.
-believed a strong leader would help kingdom survive disasters.
Pharaoh means "great house" and refers to the grand palace the pharaoh lived in. The Pharaoh was a political and religious leader. He was believed to be the god on Earth.
A pharaoh could:
-exercise total power
-appoint bureaucrats, government officials, who collected taxes of grain.
-distribute land to officials, priests, and the wealthy
-be honored with music.
take part in ceremonies.
Egypt Social Groups
People were born in the following social classes:
-Highest position: pharaoh and his family
-Upper Class: priests, nobles, and army commanders.
-Middle Class: traders, artisans, merchants, and scribes.
-Lower Class: farmers and herders.
-Lowest Class: unskilled workers and enslaved people.
Religion in Egypt
Egyptian gods connected to the physical landscape of Egypt. The Kushites also worshipped some Egyptian gods.
Some notable gods:
-Re = the sun god
-Hapi = the river god
-Osiris = early Pharaoh who game laws and taught farming
-Isis = wife of Osiris who represented faithful wife and mother; both Osiris and Isis believed to rule world of the dead
-Thoth = god of learning
The Book of the Dead described the afterlife and a place of peace. Early on Egyptians thought only the pharaoh could enjoy the afterlife. Later it was believed that anyone could.
-Osiris greeted those that died, granting eternal life.
-Egyptians protected the dead body with embalming.
Egyptian Ingenuity and Writing
Use of Papyrus:
-initially, papyrus used for rope, sandals, baskets, rafts
-later, papyrus used to make paper to write on
Hieroglyphs combine pictures and sounds:
-began as picture sybols representing ideas and objects
-later, created symbols representing sounds
-written by scribes on clay tablets
-developed and wrote or painted on paper a script for everyday use.
Egyptian Medical Skills
Embalming led to development of basic medical skills.
-sewn cuts; set of broken bones; developed splints bandages, and compresses
-wrote medical information on papyrus scrolls.
What were Pyramid Tombs
Large stone tombs:
-built in the shape of a pyramid
-rested on a large, square-shaped foundation.
-created to protect dead pharaoh's preserved body.
-thought to protect personal belongings in the afterlife
How Were Pyramids Built
Thousands of farmers, surveyors, engineers, carpenters, and stonecutters:
-calculated the amount of stone needed.
-measured angles to construct the walls - leading to invention of written number system based on 10.
-used astronomy to find north of tomb entrance - leading to invention of the 365-day calendar with 12 months.
Imhotep was the first great engineer who built pyramids.
The Middle Kingdom of Golden Age
Time period 2055 BC to 1650 BC
-capital moved from Memphis to Thebes
-armies gained territory in Nubia in the south
-tributes were collected
-added acres to farmland to prevent scarcity
-built irrigation dams and channels for growing population
-constructed canal between the Nile River and the Red Sea for trading.
-art and architecture grew during the Middle Kingdom
-carved scenes on stone walls; created statues of pharaohs.
-tombs cut into limestone cliffs in the Valley of the Kings
Narmer was an ancient Egyptian king of the Early Dynastic Period around 3000 BC who:
-conquered lower Egypt.
-married one of the lower Egypt's princesses, uniting the two kingdoms.
-made Memphis the capital where he governed.
-passed his rule to his grandson after his death, forming a dynasty.
a group of nomadic invaders from southwest Asia who ruled Egypt from 1640 to 1570 B.C. who:
-used horse-drawn chariots
-made weapons of bronze & iron to gain control of Egypt.
-ruled until Ahmose, an Egyptian prince, drove them out.
Building an Empire: The new Kingdom
Ahmose founded a new dynasty, which lasted form 1550 BC to 1070 BC
Egypt was no longer isolated due to:
-gaining more land through conquest
-spreading goods through trade
-sharing ideas and cultures within the empire.
A Woman Pharaoh
There was a woman pharaoh in the new Kingdom. Hatshepsut appointed herself pharaoh after her husband died because her nephew was too young to inherit the role. Hatshepsut:
-dressed as a male with a false beard
-restored monuments and built temples
-promoted trade, including the exchange of beads, metal tools, and weapons for gold, ivory, ebony wood, and incense.
A Religious Founder
-Amenhotep IV became pharaoh around 1370 BC
-He changed religion to worshipping only the god Aton.
-Most Egyptians rejected Aton and continued polytheism.
-Akhenaton lost lands in western Asia to outside invaders.
King Tut, a 10 year old pharaoh who ruled for nine years and then died unexpectantly; restored the old gods (polytheism). Died at age 19. Had intact tomb with mummy, treasures, and gold mask of his face.
Expanding the Empire
Thutmose III became pharaoh after Hatshepsut. He:
-expanded lands north to Euphrates River and south to Nubia.
-conquered about 350 cities, enslaving many people.
-gained gold, copper, and ivory for the empire
Recovery and Decline
Pharaohs during 1200 BC wanted to restore Egypt's greatness by:
-gaining more territory through war.
-building more temples and monuments.
Egypt was conquered by Libyans, Kush, and Assyrians.
Rise and Fall of Ancient East African Kingdoms
After Ghana fell because of invading forces and internal disputes, Mali rose to greatness under the leadership of a legendary king named Sundiata, the "Lion King." Later, another great leader named Mansa Musa extended the empire. After his death, however, his sons could not hold the empire together.
Capital of Meroe
Meroe was a wealthy metropolis of the ancient kingdom of Kush in what is today the Republic of Sudan. It was the latter day capital of the Kingdom of Kush (c. 1069 BCE-c.350 CE) after the earlier captial of Napata was sacked in c. 590 BCE
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