20 terms

# ICP FINAL #5 - Waves

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wave
a disturbance that transfers energy from one place to another
amplitude
for transverse waves: the distance between the resting point (or equilibrium) to the crest or trough
frequency
the number of waves passing a fixed point in a certain amount of time; it is based partly on wavelength (longer wavelengths take a longer time to pass) and partly on the speed the wave travels
medium
any substance that a wave moves through
mechanical wave
waves that transfer energy through matter
wavelength
the distance from one wave crest to the very next crest. (This may also be measured from trough to trough.)
reflection
the bouncing back of a wave as it strikes a barrier
refraction
the bending of a wave as it enters a new medium at an angle other than 90 degrees
diffraction
the spreading out of waves through an opening or around the edges of an obstacle
interference
the meeting and combining of waves
destructive interference
when waves cancel each other out
constructive interference
when waves combine to a larger amplitude
2 relationships for waves
1) speed and frequency = directly proportional
(as speed goes up, frequency goes up)
2) wavelength and frequency = inversely proportional
(as wavelength gets longer, frequency goes down)
reflection examples
mirror (light waves), echo (sound waves), RADAR (radio waves)
refraction examples
a straw looks "broken" when you look at it in a glass of water (because the light bends when it enters the water)
diffraction examples
light will bend around a lampshade; sounds can be heard even if you are hiding behind something
EM Wave
electromagnetic wave; moves energy through space (sometimes empty space, sometimes through a medium - DOES NOT REQUIRE A MEDIUM)
Examples of EM Waves
Radio, infrared (IR), light
Examples of mechanical waves
Sound, ocean waves, earthquakes
Waves caused by vibrations of atoms
Infrared