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APUSH The New Republic
Terms in this set (70)
1786-1787 This conflict in Massachusetts caused many to criticize the Articles of Confederation and admit the weak central government was not working; uprising led by Daniel Shays in an effort to prevent courts from foreclosing on the farms of those who could not pay the taxes
A meeting held in 1787 to consider changes to the Articles of Confederation; resulted in the drafting of the Constitution.
Structure of government under the Constitution
The Great Compromise, Three-Fifths Compromise, and Checks and Balances, Three Systems of Government
Shifting balance of government power
powers shifted from states to national gov
Desired a strong central government, fearing a loose democracy would lead to disaster. They believed that the sovereignty of the people resided in all branches of government (executive, judiciary, and legislature). Included George Washington, Ben Franklin, and most wealthy Americans. Opposed not anti federalists and republicans. The fact that they were, in general, wealthier, more educated, and better organized led to their upper hand in the early government.
The Federalist Papers are a series of 85 articles advocating the ratification of the United States Constitution. Signifiicance: The Federalist papers were written by renowned Federalists such as Hamilton, Madison and John Jay.
Anti-Federalists rose up as the opponents of the Constitution during the period of ratification. They opposed the Constitution's powerful centralized government, arguing that the Constitution gave too much political, economic, and military control. They instead advocated a decentralized governmental structure that granted most power to the states
A compromise between Southern and Northern states reached during the Philadelphia Convention of 1787 in which three-fifths of the population of slaves would be counted for enumeration purposes regarding both the distribution of taxes and the apportionment of the members of the United States House of Representatives.
The Great Compromise
A combination of the Virginia and New Jersey plans, two houses: one with equal representation and one with proportional representation, presented by Roger Sherman
Abolition of slave trade, 1808
The international slave trade was abolished in 1808 after Thomas Jefferson had signed a bill that prohibited the importation of of slaves into the United States on March 3, 1807, which went into effect on January 1, 1808, and the British House of Lords passed an act that abolished the slave trade in Britain, but did not make slavery illegal.
It elevated women as keepers of the national conscience because they were entrusted with the moral education of the young. Raising children with American values.
Bill of Rights
Although the Anti-Federalists failed to block the ratification of the Constitution, they did ensure that the Bill of Rights would be created to protect individuals from government interference and possible tyranny. The Bill of Rights, drafted by a group led by James Madison, consisted of the first ten amendments to the Constitution, which guaranteed the civil rights of American citizens.
Washington's Farewell Address
1796. Warned Americans not to get involved in European affairs, not to make permanent alliances, not to form political parties and to avoid sectionalism.
Hamilton's Financial Plan
It was created by Alexander Hamilton to stabilized the American economy. It consitsted of federal assumption of all debts, includign state and federal debts. Along with this, he proposed the chartering of the U.S. bank to help restore American credit. Necessary because of excessive debts and led to the split into two political parties. 1) pay all debts-foreign and domestic (Assumption Bill) 2) tariffs (tax on imports) 3) excise tax (on whiskey)
Birth of Political Parties
Democratic Republic and Federalist party. They were created because of differences on foreign and domestic policy., The political parties were first started because of contests in Congress over Hamilton's financial program. Hamilton's followers formed the Federalists, and Madison lead the Republican party.
Alexander Hamilton or Maddison interpreted the consititution loosely especially with the elastic clause as he believed that what was most convenient was "necessary", while Jefferson had a strict interpretation of the constitution in that if the consititution said there was no power to do something you could not do it.
Bank of the United States
Proposed by Alexander Hamilton as the basis of his economic plan. He proposed a powerful private institution, in which the government was the major stockholder. This would be a way to collect and amass the various taxes collected. It would also provide a strong and stable national currency. Jefferson thought it was un-constitutional. Nevertheless, it was created. This issue brought about the issue of implied powers. It also helped start political parties, this being one of the major issues of the day.
Impact of the French Revolution
U.S remained neutral of because of Washington's decision thus adding tension. U.S. was too young to get involved.
When the French, outraged by Jay's treaty, begin violating the terms of the Franco-American Treaty of 1778, President John Adams sends over three secret go-betweens to talk with Talleyrand, the French foreign minister. The demanded a bribe in order to merely talk with Talleyrand. This occurrence led to Naval Battles between the two countries. But France, already at battling Britain, realized they did not wish to have one more enemy added to their roster. Kept America out of war!
Quasi-War with France
An undeclared war between the United States and France, the Quasi-War was the result of disagreements over treaties and America's status as a neutral in the Wars of the French Revolution. Fought entirely at sea, the Quasi-War was largely a success for the fledgling US Navy as its vessels captured numerous French privateers and warships, while only losing one of its vessels.
Alien and Sedition Act
These consist of four laws passed by the Federalist Congress in 1798: the Naturalization Act, which increased the waiting period for an immigrant to become a citizen from 5 to 14 years; the Alien Act, which empowered the president to arrest and deport dangerous aliens; the Alien Enemy Act, which allowed for the arrest and deportation of citizens of countries at was with the US; and the Sedition Act, which made it illegal to publish defamatory statements about the federal government or its officials. The first 3 were enacted in response to the XYZ Affair, and were aimed at immigrants. The Sedition Act was an attempt to stifle Democratic-Republican (Jefferson) opposition. Passed during Quasi War.
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.
Appointed by John Adams (1801) as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court- was a Virginia Federalist who was disliked by the state's rights Jeffersonians.The Federalists died out but Marshall continued to hand down Federalist decisions. Helped establish practice of Judicial Review
The 16 judges that were added by the Judiciary Act of 1801 that were called this because Adams signed their appointments late on the last day of his administration.
Marbury vs. Madison
The 1803 case in which Chief Justice John Marshall and his associates first asserted the right of the Supreme Court to determine the meaning of the U.S. Constitution. The decision established the Court's power of judicial review over acts of Congress, in this case the Judiciary Act of 1789.
McCullough vs. Maryland
Court case that said a state could not tax a national bank thus increasing the power of the national government, Necessary and Proper clause (Elastic Clause)
Authority given the courts to review constitutionality of acts by the executive/state/legislature; est. in Marbury v. Madison
Revolution of 1800
Jefferson's view of his election to presidency. Jefferson claimed that the election of 1800 represented a return to what he considered the original spirit of the Revolution. Jefferson's goals for his revolution were to restore the republican experiment, check the growth of government power, and to halt the decay of virtue that had set in under Federalist rule.
Brought about by the Jefferson/Burr tie, stated that presidential and vice-presidential nominees would run on the same party ticket. Before that time, all of the candidates ran against each other, with the winner becoming president and second-place becoming vice-president.
1803 - The U.S. purchased the land from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains from Napoleon for $15 million. Jefferson was interested in the territory because it would give the U.S. the Mississippi River and New Orleans (both were valuable for trade and shipping) and also room to expand. Napoleon wanted to sell because he needed money.The Constitution did not give the federal government the power to buy land, so Jefferson used loose construction to justify the purchase. Doubled the size of the US.
Lewis and Clark Expedition
1804-1806 Meriwether Lewis and William Clark were commissioned by Jefferson to map and explore the Louisiana Purchase region. Beginning at St. Louis, Missouri, the expedition travelled up the Missouri River to the Great Divide, and then down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean. It produced extensive maps of the area and recorded many scientific discoveries, greatly facilitating later settlement of the region and travel to the Pacific coast.
Violations of US neutrality
The two principal belligerents, France and Britain, attempted naval blockades of enemy ports. They regularly seized the ships of neutral nations and confiscated their cargoes. The chief offender from the U.S. point of view was Britain, since its navy dominated the Atlantic. Most infuriating was the British practice of capturing U.S. sailors and impressing (forcing) them to serve in the British navy.
Embargo Act of 1807
This act issued by Jefferson forbade American trading ships from leaving the U.S. It was meant to force Britain and France to change their policies towards neutral vessels by depriving them of American trade. It was difficult to enforce because it was opposed by merchants and everyone else whose livelihood depended upon international trade.
British practice of taking American sailors from American ships and forcing them into the British navy; a factor in the War of 1812.
One incident at sea especially aroused American anger and almost led to war. In 1807, only a few miles off the coast of Virginia, the British warship Leopard fired on the U.S. warship Chesapeake. Three Americans were killed and four others were taken captive and impressed into the British navy. Anti-British feeling ran high, and many Americans de- manded war. Jefferson, however, resorted to diplomacy and economic pressure as his response to the crisis.
War of 1812: Causes and Results
War between the U.S. and Great Britain which lasted until 1814, ending with the Treaty of Ghent and a renewed sense of American nationalism. Caused by American outrage over the impressment of American sailors by the British, the British seizure of American ships, and British aid to the Indians attacking the Americans on the western frontier. It gave the U.S. an excuse to seize the British northwest posts and to annex Florida from Britain's ally Spain, and possibly even to seize Canada from Britain. Involved several sea battles and frontier skirmishes. U.S. troops led by Andrew Jackson seized Florida and at one point the British managed to invade and burn Washington, D.C. The Treaty of Ghent ended the war, but two weeks later, Andrew Jackson's troops defeated the British at the Battle of New Orleans, not knowing that a peace treaty had already been signed. The war strengthened American nationalism and encouraged the growth of industry.
Battle of Tippecanoe
1811, Harrison destroyed the Shawnee headquarters and put an end to Tecumseh's efforts to form an Indian confederacy. The British had provided only limited aid to Tecumseh. Neverthe- less, Americans on the frontier blamed the British for instigating the rebellion
Known as war hawks because of their eagerness for war with Britain. Led by Henry Clay of Kentucky and John C. Calhoun of South Carolina, the war-hawk Congressmen argued that war with Britain would be the only way to defend American honor, gain Canada, and destroy Native American resistance on the frontier.
Before the war ended, the New England states came close to seceding from the Union. Bitterly opposed to both the war and the Republican government in Washington, radical Federalists in New England urged that the Constitution be amended and that, as a last resort, secession be voted upon. To limit the growing power of the Republicans in the South and West, they adopted a number of proposals. One of them called for a two-thirds vote of both houses for any future declaration of war.Shortly after the convention dissolved, news came of both Jackson's victory
at New Orleans and the Treaty of Ghent. These events ended criticism of the war and further weakened the Federalists.
Battle of New Orleans; Andrew Jackson
Jackson led a battle that occurred when British troops attacked U.S. soldiers in New Orleans on January 8, 1815; the War of 1812 had officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Ghent in December, 1814, but word had not yet reached the U.S.
Treaty of Ghent
December 24 1814, Treaty that ended the War of 1812
- a halt to the fighting
- the return of all conquered territory to the prewar claimant
- recognition of the prewar boundary between Canada and the United States.
American System; Henry Clay
His plan, which he called the American System, consisted of three parts: (1) protective tariffs, (2) a national bank, and (3) internal improvements. Clay argued that protective tariffs would promote American manufacturing and also raise revenue with which to build a national transporta- tion system of federally constructed roads and canals. A national bank would keep the system running smoothly by providing a national currency. The tariffs would chiefly benefit the East, internal improvements would promote growth in the West and the South, and the bank would aid the economies of all sections.
On the matter of internal improvements, both Madison and Monroe objected that the Constitution did not explicitly provide for the spending of federal money on roads and canals. Throughout his presidency, Monroe consistently vetoed acts of Congress providing funds for road-building and canal-building projects. Thus, the individual states were left to make internal improvements on their own.
The completion of the Erie Canal in New York State in 1825 was an event of major importance in linking the economies of western farms and eastern cities. The success of this canal in stimulating economic growth touched off a frenzy of canal-building in other states. In little more than a decade, canals joined together all of the major lakes and rivers east of the Mississippi. Improved transportation meant lower food prices in the East, more immigrants settling in the West, and stronger economic ties between the two sections.
1823 - Declared that Europe should not interfere in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere and that any attempt at interference by a European power would be seen as a threat to the U.S. It also declared that a New World colony which has gained independence may not be recolonized by Europe. Mostly just a show of nationalism, the doctrine had no major impact until later in the 1800s.
1819. Settled land dispute between Spain and United States as a result of tensions brought on by weakening Spanish power in teh New World. U.S. gained Florida in exchange for $5 million and renounced any claims on Texas and settled boundary between two countries to the Pacific Ocean.
Era of Good Feelings
A name for President Monroe's two terms, a period of strong nationalism, economic growth, and territorial expansion. Since the Federalist party dissolved after the War of 1812, there was only one political party and no partisan conflicts.
A tax on imported goods that is intended to protect a nation's businesses from foreign competition
Senator from Kentucky called the Great Compromiser because he was credited the Missouri Compromise and other major political compromises between 1820 - 1850.
Railroads, canals created economic link between North and West. South ceased to be essential to the West, so they could afford to be hostile to slavery
After months of heated debate in Congress and throughout the nation, Henry Clay won majority support for three bills that, taken together, represented a compromise:
1. Missouri was to be admitted as a slaveholding state.
2. Maine was to be admitted as a free state.
3. In the rest of the Louisiana Territory north of latitude 36° 30° , slavery was prohibited.
Both houses passed the compromise plan, and President Monroe added his signature in March 1820
John C. Calhoun
7th Vice President of the United States and a leading Southern politician from South Carolina during the first half of the 19th century; was an advocate of slavery, states' rights, limited government, and nullification
Election of 1824
No one won a majority of electoral votes, so the House of Representatives had to decide among Adams, Jackson, and Clay. Clay dropped out and urged his supporters in the House to throw their votes behind Adams. Jackson and his followers were furious and accused Adams and Clay of a "corrupt bargain."
One of the two major U.S political party;founded in 1828 by Andrew Jackson to support a decentralized government and state's rights.
Expansion of Democracy
Aka "Jacksonian democracy;" saw a great increase of respect and power for the common man, as the electorate expanded to include all white male adult citizens, rather than only land owners in that group
Winning government jobs became the lifeblood of party organizations. At the national level, President Jackson believed in appointing people to federal jobs (as postmasters, for example) strictly according to whether they had actively campaigned for the Democratic party. Any previous holder of the office who was not a Democrat was fired and replaced with a loyal Democrat. This practice of dispensing government jobs in return for party loyalty was called the spoils system by critics because it promoted government corruption.
In addition, Jackson believed in a system of rotation in office. To make it possible for a maximum number of Democrats to hold office, he would limit a person's tenure in office to just one term and appoint some other deserving Democrat in his place. Jackson defended the replacement and rotation of office- holders by the new administration as a democratic reform
Jackson's Style of Leadership
strong against BUS and vetoed a lot, believe in states rights but thing that president the most important and not congress, did a lot for the common man but made bogus treaties with Native Americans.
Use of Veto
first 6 presidents only vetoed 9 bills, jackson alone vetoed 12. jackson used the veto to control congress, making the government equal in power to the congress.
Jackson's "Kitchen Cabinet"
Jackson's group of unofficial advisers consisting of newspaper editors and Democratic leaders that met to discuss current issues. Jackson used the 'Kitchen Cabinet' more than his official cabinet.
Jackson and the bank
Andrew Jackson thought it was a tool of the rich (against the common man) and was determined to smash it. Vetoed the rechartering of it in 1832 and took all the funds from the National Bank and put them in the state banks (pet banks). Caused the Depression (Panic) of 1837.
Jackson and the Native Americans
supported the settlers' demand for Native American land, Jackson wanted to move the Native Americans to the Great Plains.
-Trail of Tears
-Indian Removal Act of 1830
Indian Removal Act of 1830
Jackson's plan to have eastern Indian tribes relocated to west of Mississippi supposedly for their own good to preserve them from assimilation or violence- passed by Congress and gave $500,000 to the project- would clear 100 million acres of land.
Worcester v. Georgia
Supreme Court Decision - Cherokee Indians were entitled to federal protection from the actions of state governments which would infringe on the tribe's sovereignty - Jackson ignored it.
Tariff of Abominations
1828 - Also called Tariff of 1828, it raised the tariff on imported manufactured goods. The tariff protected the North but harmed the South; South said that the tariff was economically discriminatory and unconstitutional because it violated state's rights.
Nullification Crisis of 1832
A sectional crisis created by South Carolina's 1832 Ordinance of Nullification. The ordinance declared that the federal tariff of 1828 and 1832 were unconstitutional, and therefore did not apply to the boundaries of South Carolina.
An American political party formed in the 1830s to oppose President Andrew Jackson and the Democrats, stood for protective tariffs, national banking, and federal aid for internal improvements.
Panic of 1837
When Jackson was president, many state banks received government money that had been withdrawn from the Bank of the U.S. These banks issued paper money and financed wild speculation, especially in federal lands. Jackson issued the Specie Circular to force the payment for federal lands with gold or silver. Many state banks collapsed as a result. A panic ensued (1837). Bank of the U.S. failed, cotton prices fell, businesses went bankrupt, and there was widespread unemployment and distress.
Trail of Tears
The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas-more than 800 miles (1,287 km)-to the Indian Territory. More than 4, 00 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.
Martin Van Buren
Created the system of party government. claimed that political parties were necessary to "check" the government from abusing its power. created the first political machine. denounced the American System and opposed the Whigs. (Jackson's sucessor)
William Henry Harrison
was an American military leader, politician, the ninth President of the United States, and the first President to die in office (during inauguration). His death created a brief constitutional crisis, but ultimately resolved many questions about presidential succession left unanswered by the Constitution until passage of the 25th Amendment. Led US forces in the Battle of Tippecanoe.
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