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Politics of the United States
Constitution Test Chapter 5 US History
Terms in this set (61)
What were the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation?
-couldnt regulate interstate trade
-no excecutive branch to enforce national laws
-no national court system
-couldnt raise an army
-9/13 states to mas a law
offered a two-house Congress to satisfy both small and big states
Madison's Virginia Plan
bicameral legislature based on states population
William Patterson/New Jersey Plan
proposed a single-house congress in which each state had an equal vote
three-fifths of a states slaves to be counted as population
What is separation of powers?
when the powers of the Federal government is divided into three separate but equal branches
What is checks and balances?
to prevent one branch from dominating the others
Legislative checks on the Executive branch
-congress can override a presidents veto
-congress approve of federal funding
-congress can impeach and remove president and high officials
-senate approves or rejects treaties
-senate confirms or rejects federal appointments
excutive checks on the judicial branch
-president appoints federal judges with the senates approval
-president can pardon people convicted of federal crimes
executive checks on the legislative branch
-President can veto bills of congress
-President can fall special sessions of congress
-President can influence public opinion
legislative checks on the judicial branch
-congress establishes lower federal courts
-senate confirms or rejects appointment of judges
-congress can impeach and remove federal judges
judicial checks in the executive branch
-appointed for life, federal judges are free from presidential control
-can declare presidential actions unconstitutional
A system in which power is divided between the national and state governments
What is the electoral college?
a way to avoid the direct popular election of the president
435 Congressional Seats
3 Washington D.C
What Branch of government is created by article 1
What Branch of government is created by article 2
What Branch of government is created by article 3
What are the three actions that a president can take when a bill comes to him in congress
- no action
How is the number of presidential electors determined for each state?
equals the number of members in its Congressional delegation: one for each member in the House of Representatives plus two for your Senators.
What is the total number of electoral votes today
How many electoral votes are needed to win the presidency?
How many senators does each state have?
2, no matter what population
How long is a Senator's term?
Qualifications for a senator
-30 years old
- 9 years citizen
- resident of state
How long is a term for a house of representatives
2 years, unlimited number of terms
qualifications for a house of representative
- 25 yrs or older
- 7 yrs of a citizenship of the USA
- Resident of the state you will be elected from
how often are there senatorial elections
every two years for 1/3 of the senate
Qualifications for President
-Natural born citizen
-35 years or older
- 14 year resident of the U.S
How often are presidential elections held?
every 4 years but you can only get reelected once ( 2 terms max )
What is habeas corpus?
the right of a person to hear charges against him/her, leads to right to a trial
What is the Bills of Attainder?
it prohibits the passage of any law that convicts or punishes a person directly without trial
What is ex post facto law?
A law that prevents punishment for a act that was legal when it was performed (but is no longer legal)
What is the elastic clause? (18th clause)
"stretches" out the powers of congress by allowing them to make all laws needed as long as it relates ti a given power (clauses 1-17)
(We the People) states goals of the document
ex: -form a more perfect union
- establish justice
-provide common defense (etc)
Ratification of the Constitution
required 9 out of 13 states to approve
The ratification process started when the Congress turned the Constitution over to the state legislatures for consideration through specially elected state conventions of the people. ... This copy of the Constitution was used by delegates to the New York ratification convention.
supporters of the Constitution
people who opposed the Constitution
A form of government in which citizens choose their leaders by voting
The lawmaking branch of government:Congress
--powers given to congress-- clauses 1-18
ex: Taxation or international trade
ensures the laws are followed: President
--commander of army and navy
the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state
to charge an official with a crime
Powers held jointly by the national and state governments.
Powers specifically given to the federal government by the US Constitution, for example, the authority to print money.
Powers not specifically granted to the federal government or denied to the states belong to the states and the people
What is the job of the V.P. as the president of the senate?
If the votes are tied they vote and their vote is the tie breaker
How long do judges serve?
As long as they are in good behavior (forever)
What is the full faith and credit clause?
addresses the duties that states within the United States have to respect the "public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other state."
What is the supremacy clause
establishes that the Constitution, federal laws made pursuant to it, and treaties made under its authority, constitute the supreme law of the land.
How do amendments get added to the constitution?
they are proposed or sent as an application
then are approved if 3/4 of the legislatures of several states vote yes or 3/4 of congress
Rebellion led by Daniel Shays of farmers in western Massachusetts in 1786-1787, protesting mortgage foreclosures. It highlighted the need for a strong national government just as the call for the Constitutional Convention went out.
allowed slaves to be counted as 3/5ths of a person towards representation and taxation
Slave Trade Compromise
Congress could not regulate or outlaw slavery or slave trade until 1808
system of checks and balances
a system within the constitution that prevents one person or group from obtaining too much power
Executive checks Legislative (3)
1) Can veto bills of Congress
2) Can call special sessions of congress
3) Can influence public opinion
Executive checks Judicial (2)
1) Appoints federal judges
2) Can grant pardons to federal offenders
Legislative checks Executive (5)
1) Congress can override a presidential veto w/ 2/3 vote
2) Congress approves federal funding
3) Congress can impeach & remove president & high officials
4) Senate approves or rejects treaties
5) Senate confirms or rejects federal appointments
Legislative checks Judicial (2)
1) Congress establishes lower federal courts
2) Senate confirms or rejects appointment of judge
3) Can impeach & remove federal judges
Judicial checks Legislative (2)
1) Can declare acts of Congress unconstitutional
2) Can decide the meaning of laws
Judicial checks Executive (2)
1) Appointed for life, federal judges (are free from presidential control)
2) Can declare presidential actions unconstitutional
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