Biology Chapter 3 & 21
Terms in this set (8)
a) What are the 3 principles of the cell theory? b) Briefly explain why cells must remain relatively small in size.
A) -all living things are composed of one or more cells
-the cell is the basic unit of life
-new cells arise from existing cells
B) larger the cell then it doesnt meet the supply of a larger volume; the cell starves
a) Explain the differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes giving an example of each. b) Name 3 cell structures that are present in both of the above types of cells. c) What would be the appearance of Staphylococcus bacteria?
A) prokaryotes - no nucleus
Eukaryotes - nucleus
B) -plasma membrane
List the 4 primary functions of the membrane proteins and briefly explain each.
doorways in membrane for specific substances
starter switch, triggers cellular activity
cellular fingerprint, identifies the cell
connect neighboring cells
a) Too much salt in your bloodstream can cause your cells to get "thirsty." Why? (Hint: think osmosis) b) What happens to animal cells in this situation?
hypertonic solutions, the blood, cause cells to lose water and shrivel
-animal cells die
a) Explain the difference between endocytosis and exocytosis. b) List the 2 specific forms of endocytosis briefly explaining each.
A) endocytosis brings substances into the cell, exocytosis expels substances out of the cell
B) phagocytosis - engulfing food particles
pinocytosis - engulfing liquids
a) List the path a protein follows as it is produced and transported through the cell. b) The small circular sacs that taxi proteins between organelles are called what?
A) rough er to golgi to transparent vesicles to cell surface
a) Compare and contrast DNA and RNA. b) List the types of RNA briefly explaining the function of each during protein synthesis.
A) DNA- double stranded
RNA- single stranded
B) mRNA transcribes genetic code
rRNA translation of mRNA to proteins
tRNA brings/transfers amino acids
a) Explain why DNA replication is called a semi-conservative process. b) What are the 4 nitrogenous bases in DNA? c) Which are purines vs. pyrimidines?
A) replicated DNA molecules contain 1 parental (original) and 1 daughter (new) strand
B) A, T, G, C
C) purines - Adeline, guanine
pyrimidines - thymine, cytosine
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