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63 terms

Cellular Reproduction Vocab (Chapters 9 and 10)

This set deals with vocab words from Chapter 9 (The Cell Cycle and Cellular Respiration) and Chapter 10 (Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction)
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anaphase
mitotic phase during which daughter chromosomes move toward the poles of the spindle
asexual reproduction
reproduction that requires only one parent and does not involve gametes
aster
short, radiating fibers produced by the centrosomes in animal cells
cell cycle
an orderly set of stages and substages between one division and the next
cell plate
structure across a dividing plant cell that signals the location of new plasma membranes and cell walls
centriole
cell organelle, existing in pairs, that occurs in the centrosome and may help organize a mitotic spindle for chromosome movement during animal cell division
centromere
constriction where sister chromatids of a chromosome are help together
centrosome
microtubule organizing center; organizes the miotic spindle, contains two barrel-shaped centrioles
chromatid
each double helix of DNA
chromatin
network of fibrils consisting of DNA and associated proteins observed within a nucleus that is not dividing
cyclin
protein that cycles in quantity as the cell cycle progresses; combines with and activates the kinases that function to promote the events of the cycle
cytokinesis
division of the cytoplasm following mitosis and meiosis
diploid (2n)
cell condition in which two of each type of chromosome are present
growth factor
external signals received at the plasma membrane
haploid (n)
cell in which only one of each type of chromosome is present
interphase
stages of the cell cycle during which growth and DNA synthesis occur when the nucleus is not actively dividing
metaphase
mitotic phase during which chromosomes are aligned at the metaphase plate
metaphase plate
a disk formed during metaphase in which all of a cell's chromosomes lie in a single plane at right angles to the spindle fibers
mitosis
process in which a parent nucleus produces two daughter nuclei, each having the same number and kinds of chromosomes as the parent nucleus
nucleoid
region of prokaryotic cells where DNA is located; it is not bounded by a nuclear envelope
prometaphase
phase of mitosis which generally begins with the disintegration of the nuclear membrane
prophase
mitotic phase during which chromatin condenses so that chromosomes appear; chromosomes are scattered
reproductive cloning
genetically identical to the original individual
signal
a molecule that stimulates or inhibits a metabolic event
sister chromatid
one of two genetically identical chromosomal units that are the result of DNA replication and are attached to each other at the centromere
somatic cell
body cell
spindle
microtubule structure that brings about chromosomal movement during nuclear division
telomere
tip of the end of a chromosome that shortens with each cell division and may thereby regulate the number of times a cell can divide
allele
alternative form of a gene-occurs at the same locus on homologous chromosomes
crossing-over
some parts of nonsister chromatids switch during meiosis
fertilization
fusion of sperm and egg nuclei, producing a zygote that develops into a new individual
gamete
sex cell
gametogenesis
development of the male and female sex gametes
gametophyte
haploid generation of the alternation of generations life cycle of a plant; produces gametes that unite to form a diploid zygote
genetic recombination
process in which new genetic information is incorporated into a chromosome or DNA fragment
homologous chromosome
member of a pair of chromosomes that are alike and come together in synapsis during prophase of the first meiotic division
homologue
member of a homologous pair of chromosomes
independent assortment
alleles of unlinked genes segregate independently of each other during meiosis so that the gametes contain all possible combinations of alleles
interkinesis
period of time between meiosis I and meiosis II during which no DNA replication takes place
kinetochore
disk-shaped strucutre within the centromere of a chromosome to which spindle microtubules become attached during mitosis and meiosis
life cycle
recurring pattern of genetically programmed events by which individuals grown, develop, maintain themselves, and reproduce
oogenesis
meiosis in female
sexual reproduction
reproduction involving meiosis, gamete formation, and fertilization; produces offspring with chromosomes inherited from each parent with a unique combination of genes
spermatogenesis
meiosis in male
sporophyte
diploid generation of the alternation of generations life cycle of a plant; produces haploid spores that develop into the haploid generation
synapsis
pairing of homologous chromosomes during meiosis I
zygote
diploid cell formed by the union of two gametes; the product of fertilization
G1 phase
recovery from previous division, cell doubles its organelles, accumulates raw materials for DNA synthesis
S phase
DNA replication (synthesis), chromosomes enter with 1 chromatid each, chromosomes leave with 2 identical chromatids each
G2 phase
between DNA replication and onset of mitosis; cell synthesizes proteins necessary for division
binary fission
splitting in between the two replicate chromosomes; produces two daughter cells identical to original cells-asexual reproduction
meiosis
special type of cell division used only for sexual reproduction that halves the chromosome number prior to fertilization
tetrad
4 pieces to the homologous pair (each chromatid represents 1/4 of this)
gonad
organ in which meiosis occurs
ovary (follicle)
female gonad
testes (seminiferous tubules)
male gonad
ovum (egg)
female gamete
sperm
male gamete
karyotype
map all chromosomes out to see all characteristics
seperate homologous pairs
point of meiosis I
seperate sister chromatids
point of meiosis II
crossing-over
exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatides during meiosis I
telophase
mitotic phase during which daughter cells are located at each pole