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With reference to the foot, where should the IR be centered for AP & AP axial projections?

Base of the third metatarsal

What other projection term refers to the AP projection of the foot?

Dorsoplantar

How should the central ray be directed to best demonstrate tarsometatarsal joints with a dorsoplantar projection?

10 Degrees posteriorly (towards the heel)

The most superior portion of the tibia (tibial eminence) projects upwards from the plateau into the:

intercondylar space

The largest bone in the normal adult foot is the:

calcaneus

The larger and more medial bone of the lower leg is the:

tibia

The ankle joint is formed by all or part of the: talus bone, tibia, fibula

All of them

According to Merrill's, which procedure should the radiographer perform if the lower leg is too long to demonstrate the knee and the ankle joint with the same exposure?

Perform two AP projections to ensure that the entire lower limb is demonstrated

When performing an AP projection of the knee, the CR should be directed to a point _____ below the ______ of the patella.

1/2 inch, apex

When positioning the body for an AP projection of the femur, how many degrees should the lower limb be rotated?

10 - 15 Degree

The head of the femur articulates with a cup shaped socket on the lateral surface of the pelvis called the:

Acetabulum

The junction of the two innominate bones at the anteroinerfior margin is termed the:

Symphysis pubis

Which boney structures join to form the obturator foramen?

Pubic bone & Ischium

Which of the following pelvic structures is not used as a positioning palpaation point?

Ishial spine

Which projections of the hip or pelvis should not be performed if the patient is suspected to have a intertrochanteric fracture?

Lauenstein method

Where on the midline of the patient should the central ray be directed for the AP oblique projection (modified Cleaves method)?

1 inch above the symphysis pubis

For which projection of an individual hip should the unaffected hip be flexed & the thigh raised out of the way of the CR?

Danelius - Miller

Which of the following methods is useful in diagnoising fractures of the acetabulum?

Judet method

The _____ serves as a base for the trunk & girdle for the attatchment of the lower limbs.

Pelvis

The hip bone is often referred to as the:

Os coxae & Innominate bone

Which structure of the pelvis articulates with the femur?

Acetabulum

Which bones of the pelvis compose the acetabulum?

Pubis, ischium, and ilium

On which bone is the ala located?

Ilium

Which of the following pelvic structures is not used as a positioning palpation point?

Ischial Spine

Which portions of the hip one joint to form the obturator foramen?

Pubis and ischium only

What is the name of the border that extends on the hip bone from the posterior superior iliac spine to ASIS?

Iliac crest

What is the name of the process that seperates the greater sciatic notch from the lesser sciatic notch on the hip bone?

Ischial Spine

Which parts of the hip bones supports the weight of the body when a person is in the sitting position?

Ischial Tuberosities

Where in the pelvis is the body of the pubis located?

It forms part of the acetabulum

Where should the IR be centered for the AP projection of the pelvis?

Midway between the ASIS and the pubic symphysis

Where on the midline of the patient should the central ray enter for the AP projection of the pelvis?

2 inches above the pubic symphysis

Which positioning maneuver should be performed to place the femoral necks parallel with the IR for an AP projection of the pelvis?

Rotate the lower limbs medially 15 to 20 degrees

How should the central ray be directed for the AP oblique projection (modified Cleaves method) to demonstrate bilateral hips?

Perpendicularly

For which projection of the lower limbs or pelvis should the hips be flexed and the femurs be abducted from the midline of the patient?

AP oblique projection (modified Cleaves method) for femoral necks

Where on the midline of the patient should the central ray be directed for the AP oblique projection (modified Cleaves method)?

1 inch above the symphysis pubis

Which projection of the hip or pelvis should not be performed if the patient is suspected to have an intertrochanteric fracture?

Lateral projection of hips (Lauenstein method)

For the AP oblique projection (modified Cleaves), what is the purpose of abducting the femurs the required number of degrees?

To position the femoral necks parallel with the IR

Which structure should be centered to the midline of the table when the AP oblique projection (cleaves) is adapted to demonstrate only one hip?

ASIS

For which projection of an individual hip should the unaffected hip be flexed and the thigh be raised out of the way of the central ray?

Axiolateral projection (Danelius-Miller mod. of the Lorenz method)

For which projection of the hip should the central ray be directed horizontally into the medial aspect of the affected thigh?

Axiolateral projection (Danelius-Miller mod. Lorenz method)

Which of the following will best demonstrate suspected fractures of the acetabulum?

AP oblique projection (Judet method)

Which of the following will best demonstrate the posterior rim of the left acetabulum?

45 Degrees RPO

What specific portion of the acetabulum is demonstrated by the AP oblique projection, external oblique projection (judet method)?

Anterior rim

Which of the following would best demonstrate the pubic and ischial rami without foreshortening?

AP axial "outlet" projection (taylor method)

What is the proper central ray orientation for the AP axial projection (taylor method) for female patients?

30 to 45 degrees cephalad

How many and what kind of bones comprise the foot and ankle?

14 phalanges, 5 metatarsals, 7 tarsals

Which bone classification are tarsals?

Short

What is the most distal part of a metatarsal?

Head

Where in the foot is the tuberosity that is easily palpable?

Proximal portion of the fifth metatarsal

Which tarsal bone is the most superior tarsal bone?

Talus

Which tarsal bone is the largest of the tarsal bones?

Calcaneus

Which tarsal bone is located on he lateral side of the foot between the calcaneus and the fourth and fifth metatarsals?

Cuboid

Which tarsal bone is located on the medial side of the foot between the talus and the three cuneiforms?

Navicular

Which bone articulates medially with the cuboid?

Lateral cuneiform

Which bones comprise the midfoot?

Navicular, cuboid, cuneiforms

Which bone articulated superiorly with the calcaneus?

Talus

Which bones articulate distally with the tarsal navicular?

Cuneiforms

Which bones articulate distally with the three cuneiforms?

Metatarsals

Which bones articulate with the metatarsals?

Cuneiform and cuboid

Which cuneiform is the largest cuneiform?

Medial

Where in the foot are the cuneiforms located?

Between the navicular and the metatarsals

Which articulation is an ellipsoid-type joint?

Tarsometatarsal

Which articulation of the foot is a gliding-type joint?

Intertarsal

Which two tarsal bones articulate with each other by way of three facets?

Talus and calcaneus

Which part of the talus articulates with the distal tibia?

Trochlea

Which type of joint is the ankle joint?

Hinge

Where is the medial malleolus located in the leg?

Distal tibia

Where is the lateral malleolus located in the leg?

Distal fibula

What structure is located on the proximal end of the fibula?

Apex

Where is the intercondylar eminence located?

Proximal tibia

Where are the tibial plateaus located?

Proximal tibia

On which border of the tibia is the crest located?

Anterior

Which term refers to the sharp ridge on the anterior border of the tibia?

Crest

Which term refers to the prominent process on the anterior surface of the proximal tibia that is just inferior to the condyles?

Tuberosity

Which joint is formed by the articulation of the head of the fibula with the lateral condyle of the tibia?

Proximal tibiofibular

Which type of joint is the proximal tibiofibular joint?

Gliding

Which structure is located on the head of the fibula?

Apex

With which structure does the head of the fibula articulate?

Lateral tibial condyle

Which term refers to the inferior tip of the patella?

Apex

Which part of the patella is the base?

Superior border

Where on the femur is the greater trochanter located?

Lateral and superior

Where on the femus is the lesser trochanter located?

Medial and posterior

Where is the fovea capitis located?

Proximal femur

Where is the intercondylar fossa located?

Distal femur

Which femoral structures articulate with the tibia?

Condyles

With which structure does the head of the femur articulate?

Acetabulum

When an angled central ray is used to perform the AP projection of the toes, how many degrees and in what direction should the central ray be directed?

15 degrees cehalad (towards heel)

How many degrees and in what direction should the foot be rotated for the AP oblique projection to demonstrate all five toes?

Perp. to the 3rd metatarsophalangeal joint

How and toward what centering point should the central ray be directed for the AP oblique projection to best demonstrate the great toe?

30 to 45 degrees medially

What other projection term refers to the AP projection of the foot?

Dorsoplantar

How many degrees and in what direction should the central ray be directed for the AP axial projection of the foot?

10 degrees cephalad (towards heels)

Which projection of the foot best demonstrates the cuboid and its articulations?

AP oblique (medial rotation)

How many degrees and in what direction should the foot rotated for the AP oblique projection of the foot?

30 degrees medially

How many degrees and in what direction should the foot be rotated for the AP oblique projection to best demonstrate the cuboid and its articulations?

30 degrees medially

How and toward what centering point should the central ray be directed for the AP oblique projection of the foot?

Perpendicular to the base of the 3rd metatarsal

Where should the central ray be directed for the AP oblique projection of the foot?

To the base of the 3rd metatarsal

Regardless of the condition of the patient, which positioning maneuver should be performed to position the foot for the lateral projection?

Ensure that the plantar surface is perpendicular to the IR

How should the central ray be directed to best demonstrate the tarsometatarsal joint spaces of the midfoot for the AP projection of the foot?

10 degrees posteriorly (toward the heel)

Which projection of the foot best demonstrates the sinus tarsi?

AP oblique projection (medial rotation)

Which projection of the foot best demonstrates most of the tarsals with the least amount of superimposition?

AP oblique projection (medial rotation)

Which projection of the foot best demonstrates the bases of the fourth and fifth metatarsals free from superimposition?

AP oblique projection (medial rotation)

Which projection of the foot should demonstrate metatarsals nearly superimposed on each other?

Lateral projection

Which two projections comprise the typical series that best demonstrates the calcaneus?

Axial (plantodorsal) and lateral projections

How many degrees and in what direction should the central ray be directed for the axial (plantodorsal) projection of the calcaneus?

40 degrees cephalad

At which level on the plantar surface should the central ray enter the foot for the axial (plantodorsal) projection of the calcaneus?

Base of the third metatarsal

Where should the central ray be directed for the lateral projection of the calcaneus?

Toward the midpoint of the calcaneus

Where should the central ray enter for the lateral projection of the ankle?

At the medial malleolus

How many degrees and in which direction should the foot and leg be rotated to best deomonstrate the mortise joint for the AP oblique projection of the ankle?

15 to 20 degrees medially

Which projection of the ankle best demonstrates the talofibular joint space free from bony superimposition?

AP oblique projection (medial rotation)

Which articulation should be seen in profile with the AP oblique projection (medial rotation) of the ankle?

Talofibular

With reference to the plane of the IR, how should the malleoli be positioned for the AP oblique projection of the ankle to best demonstrate the mortise joint spaces open?

Parallel

Which projection of the ankle should be performed to best demonstrate a ligamentous tear?

AP projection with inversion

Which projection of the knee best demonstrates the femorotibial joint space open if the patient measures more than 24 cm between the ASIS and the table top?

AP projection with central ray angled 3 to 5 degrees cephalad

For the lateral projection of the knee, hoow many degrees should the knee be flexed?

20 to 30 degrees

With reference to the knee, where should the IR be centered for the PA axial projection (holmblad method) of the knee?

To the apex of the patella

How many degrees of angulation should be formed between the femur and the radiologic table for the PA axial projection (holmblad method) of the knee?

70 degrees

Which of the following projections of the knee best demonstrates the intercondylar fossa?

PA axial projection (holmblad method)

How many degrees and in what direction should the central ray be directed for the lateral projection of the knee?

5 to 7 degrees cephalad

Which structures of the knee is best demonstrated with the tangential projection?

Patella

Which structure of the knee is best demonstrated with the PA axial projection (holmblad method)?

Femoral intercondylar fossa

Which projection of the knee best demonstrates the proximal tibiofibular articulation without bony superimposition?

AP oblique projection (medial rotation)

Which projection of the knee best demonstrates the femoropatellar space open?

Lateral projection

Which of the following evaluation criteria indicated that the knee is properly positioned for a lateral projection?

The femoral condyles are superimposed

What should be done to prevent the knee joint space from being obscured by magnification shadow of the medial femoral condyle when the lateral projection of the knee is performed?

Direct the central ray 5 to 7 degrees cephalad

Which of the following evaluation criteria indicates that the knee is properly positioned for the AP projection?

The femorotibial joint space is open

Where should the patella be demonstrated on the radiograph of the AP oblique projection of the knee with medial rotation?

Over the medial condyle of the femur

Where should the patella be demonstrated on the radiograph of the AP oblique projection of the knee with lateral rotation?

Over the lateral femoral condyle

For the lateral projection of the patella, which positioning maneuver reduces the femoropatellar joint space?

Flexing the knee more than 10 degrees

Which area of the knee should the central ray enter for the PA axial projection (holmblad method)?

Posterior

Which of the following projections of the knee best demonstrates the femoral intercondylar fossa?

PA axial projection (camp coventry method)

Which projection of the knee should be used to demonstrate the patella completely superimposed on the femur?

AP projection

Which projection of the knee should be used to demonstrate the patella in profile?

Lateral projection

For a patient prone on the radiographic table with the knee centered to the midline and the knee flexed until the lower leg forms a 40 degree angle with the table, how should the central ray be directed to demonstrate the femoral intercondylar fossa?

Caudally 40 degrees

For which projection of the knee should the patient be prone on the table, with the knee flexed until the leg forms an angle of 40 degrees with the table, and the central ray directed perpendicular to the long axis of the leg, entering the back side of the knee?

PA axial projection (Camp coventry method)

How should the central ray be directed for the bilateral weight-bearing AP projection of the knees?

Perpendicularly

Which projection of the knee can be accomplished with the patient upright, the affected knee flexed and its anterior surface in contact with a vertically placed IR, and the horizontally directed central ray entering the posterior aspect of the knee?

PA axial projection (Holmblad method)

Which positioning factor determines the number of degrees the central ray should be angled for the tangental projection (settegast method) to demonstrate the patella?

Degree of knee flexion

How should the central ray be directed for the AP projection of the femur?

Perpendicularly

Which positioning maneuver should be performed to place the femoral neck in profile for the AP projection of the femur?

Rotate the lower limb medially 10 to 15 degrees

Which positioning maneuver should be performed to prevent the femoral neck from appearing foreshortened in the AP projection of the femur?

Rotate the lower limb medially 10 to 15 degrees

For the AP projection of the femur on typical adults, what should be done to ensure that both joints of the femur are demonstrated?

Perform a second exposure with another IR

For which lower limb projection should the lower limb be rotated medially 10 to 15 degrees?

AP projection of the femur

For which lower limb projection should the pelvis be rotated 10 to 15 degrees from true lateral?

Lateral projection of the femur

For the lateral projection of the femur, how should the pelvis be positioned to demonstrate only the knee joint with the distal femoral shaft?

True lateral