Chapter 6, 7, & 8 - Skeletal system
Terms in this set (48)
Axial and appendicular
The skeleton is subdivided into two divisions:
The bones that form the longitudinal axis of the body.
The bones of the limbs and girdles.
Joints, cartilages, and ligaments
Skeletal system includes ____, _____, ______.
Support, protection, movement, storage, blood cell formation
Functions of the bones. (5)
Bones, the "steel girders" and "reinforced concrete" of the body and cradles its soft organs. (Functions of the bones).
Bones protect the soft body organs. (Functions of the bones)
Skeletal muscles, attached to bones by tendons, use the bones as levers to move the body and its parts. (Functions of the bones)
Storage, calcium ++ and phosphorus
Fat is stored in the internal (marrow) cavities of bones. Bones itself serves as a store-house for minerals the most important of which are ______ and ______.
Blood cell formation
Or hematopoiesis occurs within the marrow cavities of certain bones. (Functions of the bones)
Compact bones and spongy bones
Two basic types of osseous, or bone tissue. (2)
Is dense and looks smooth and homogenous.
Is composed of small needlelike pieces of bone and lots of open spaces
The adult skeleton is composed of _____.
Long, short, flat, irregular
Classification of bones according to shape (4)
Makes up most of the bone's length and is composed of compact bone.
A fibrous connective tissue membrane that covers and protects the diaphysis.
Perforating or shapey's fibers
Secures the periosteum to the underlying bone.
Are the ends of a long bone. Each consists of a thin layer of compact bone enclosing an area with a spongy bone.
Covers the ends of the bones or epiphyses. A glassy hyaline cartilage that provides a smooth, slippery surface that decreases friction at joint surfaces.
A thin line of bony tissue spanning the epiphysis that looks a bit different from the rest of the bone in that area.
A flat plate of hyaline cartilage seen in a young, growing bone. Causes the long bone to grow lengthwise.
Yellow marrow or medullary cavity
A storage area for adipose (fat) tissue.
Infants. In adult bones, _____ is confined to cavities in the spongy bone of flat boned and the epiphyses of some long bones.
Projections and cavities
Two categories of bone marking.
Grows out of the bone's surface.
Are indentations in the bone.
_______ are mature bone cells, found within the matrix in tiny cavities called _____
Lamellae, central or haversian canals
Lacunae are arranged in concentric circles called _______ around ________.
Osteon or harvesian system
Each complex consisting of central canal and matrix is called ____.
Tiny canals that radiate outward from the central canals to all lacunae. Forms a transportation system that connects all the bones to the nutrient supply through the hard bone matrix.
Perforating (Volkmann's) canals
The communication pathway from the outside of the bone to its interior (and the central canal) is completed by _____ which run into the compact bone at right angles to the shaft.
Development of bones using hyaline cartilage structures as their "models".
Bone forming cells.
Appositional growth, growth hormones, sex hormones
The process in which bones increase in diameter. Controlled by ______ and during puberty, ______
Calcium levels in the blood, the pull of gravity and muscles on the skeleton
Bones are remodeled continually in response to changes in two factors:
Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
When blood calcium levels drop below homeostatic levels, the parathyroid glands are stimulated to release _____ into the blood.
Activated by PTH, giant bone-destroying cells in bones, to breakdown bone matrix and release calcium ions into the blood.
Blood calcium levels are too high. Calcium is deposited in bone matrix as hard calcium salts.
Is essential if bones are to retain normal proportions and strength during long-bone growth as the body increases in size and weight.
Skull, vertebral column, thoracic cage
The divisions of axial skeleton (3)
Is formed by two sets of bones. Cranium and facial bones.
A boxlike that is composed of eight large flat boned. Except two paired bones(parietal and temporal are single bones, walay uyab)
Forms the forehead, the bony projections under the eyebrows, and the superior part of each eye's orbit.
14, mandible and vomer are single
Number of facial Bones.
Drain into the nasal passages.
Lightens the skull bones and amplify the sounds we make as we speak.
Lumbar vertebrae, 5
___ lumbar bodies Have massive, block-like bodies. The sturdiest of the vertebrae.