Common Objects, Uncommon Nouns

Names of things you wouldn't expect to have names. I bet even the tiny bit of hard skin under the edge of a fingernail has a name. I just haven't found out what it is yet.
A small piece of paper that is supposed to be removed when a hole is punched in a card or paper tape
A slat of wood in the middle of the back of a straight chair
Metal or plastic sheath over the end of a shoelace or ribbon OR Ornamental tagged cord or braid on the shoulder of a uniform
An ornamental net in the shape of a bag that confines a woman's hair; pins or ties at the back of the head
A piece of starched cloth covering the shoulders of a nun's habit OR a short blouse with sleeves that is worn under a jumper or pinafore dress
a plug used to close a hole in a barrel or flask OR A column of wood or steel or concrete that is driven into the ground to provide support for a structure