EDUC 2110 WILDER 2018 PHILOSOPHY
Terms in this set (46)
Study of fundamental nature of knowledge, reality, and existence
Philosophy of education
Principles that define the views of the learner, teacher, and school
What is the nature of reality? What is real?
Branches of Metaphysics
Ontology: what we mean by the nature of existence and what it means "to be"
Cosmology: origin and nature of the universe
What is the nature of knowledge? How do we know?
Methods of Epistemology
Studying the cognitive processes, limits, sources, structure, and validity of knowledge
Deductive logic: reasoning from a general statement of principle to a specific point
Inductive logic: reasoning from a special fact to a generalization
What is the nature of values?
Branches of Axiology
Ethics: study of human conduct and morals; right vs wrong
Aesthetics: values in beauty, nature, and the arts
- Values are absolute and not context dependent
- Things either exist or do not exist, but are imperfect representations of the perfect idea
- The reality in a world of superior and timeless truth that exists independent of human concepts
- Reason and logic are primary ways of knowing
Search for Truth is ultimate challenge
People involved in Idealism
A Greek philosopher who began the roots of idealism
French philosopher influenced by idealism and asserted that humans may doubt everything except our own existence. Famously quoted "I think, therefore I am"
Theories could be based by the purposeful and progressive elimination of all interpretations of existence except those absolutely certain
German philosopher who introduced categorical imperatives and asserted that universal moral laws guide behavior.
Categorical Imperative (Kant)
One ought only to act such that the principle of one's act could become a universal law of human action in a world in which one would hope to live
German philosopher who wrote and influenced many others (like Marx) with his writings. He is most often characterized by his dialectical and 'three-step process' of thesis, antithesis, and synthesis.
Dialectical Process (Hegel)
Reasoning in which question-answer approach (dialectic) is used to examine the correctness, legitimacy, or validity of an assumption, idea, opinion, etc.
- Antithesis of idealism
- Reality is external and verifiable
- World of things > World of ideas
- Universe exists whether or not the human mind perceives it
- Scientific method: testing hypotheses through experiments
People involved in Realism
Greek philosopher and father of realism
This scientist spread the word about the experimental method and formalized the empirical method and combined his thinking with Descartes to form the scientific method
English empiricist philosopher who believed that all knowledge is derived from sensory experience. Coined the term "tabula rasa" (blank slate).
John Locke's concept of the mind as a blank slate ultimately bombarded by sense impressions that, aided by human reasoning, formulate ideas.
- Revival of traditional Roman Catholic theology and philosophy
- Originated from Thomas Aquinas
- Theism and realism
- God exists and can be known through faith and reason
- God is preeminent; physical things are created by God
- Belief that there is meaning and purpose in the universe
- Goodness follows reason (ignorance is source of evil)
- Hierarchy of Knowing
Italian theologian who attempted to reconcile faith and reason in a comprehensive theology with Thomism
Hierarchy of Knowing (Aquinas)
- Sensation (lowest level)
- Analytic or intuitive knowing
- Supernatural or revelation (highest level)
- Constructed from experience and subject to testing and retesting
- Reality is product of interaction with ever changing environment (no absolutes)
- Knowledge attained by scientific inquiry, testing, questioning, and is never conclusive
- Truth is relative because what works for one person may not work for another
- Values are situational
People involved in Pragmatism
Science could solve social problems
Reality is open-ended, subject to change, theory of evolution
True knowledge depends on verification of ideas through experience
No absolutes, no universals, only an ever-changing universe
- Science as a primary mode of knowledge in the modern world
- Major believer in pragmatism
- Influenced Darwin's Theory of Evolution
Changing times can produce changing realities
A philosophy based on the idea that people give meaning to their lives through their choices and actions because there is no intrinsic value to life. The world of existence, choice, and responsibility is primary. By choice humans determine reality.
People involved in Existentialism
Father of existentialism
Each individual realizes their own personal meaning and reality
Dealt with Hermeneutics (an aspect of phenomenology) which deals with interpretation
Free choice implies a responsibility for own existence
Wide awareness; no awareness without thinking about yourself
Part of existentialism; stripping away of assumptions to return to original consciousness
- school of philosophy focusing on examination of terms and their meaning rather than philosophical theories
- focuses on neutrality
- assumes that language statements have immediate meaning because of inner logic
- Vienna Circle
logical positivism or logical empiricism; any proposition that cannot be verified by empirical science has no meaning
- The entire universe is one entity that transcends all forms
- 4 goals of life for believers: Dharma, Artha, Kama, Moksha
4 Goals of Life (Hinduism)
- Dharma: observe moral law and spiritual discipline
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