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art history, etruscan and roman artworks


an oval large stadium with tiers of seats


A recess, usually semicircular, in the wall of a Roman basilica or at the east end of a church.


a structure composed of a series of arches supported by columns


(architecture) a masonry construction (usually curved) for spanning an opening and supporting the weight above it


the central area in a building, large room


(architecture) a low wall at the top of the entablature; where the pediment would be but isn't

Barrel vault (tunnel vault)

the simplest form of vault consisting of an unbroken series of arches; it forms a tunnel like shape


a civic building for legal and other civic proceedings, rectangular in plan with an entrance usually on a long side and an apse


The hot-bath section of a Roman bathing establishment

Castrum (castra)

An Ancient Roman walled military camp with gridded rectangular layout, later a castle, fort, or fortified town


the temporary wooden framework used in the construction of arches, vaults, and domes


(Greek mythology) fire-breathing she-monster with a lion's head and a goat's body and a serpent's tail

Cinerary urn

a vase for the ashes of a cremated person, also referred to as "funerary urn"


an ornamental sunken panel in a ceiling or dome


opening in the roof for air, light, rain

Composite capital

A capital combining Ionic volutes and Corinthian acanthus leaves, first used by the ancient Romans.


a strong hard building material composed of sand and gravel and cement and water

groin vault (cross vault)

formed at the point at which 2 barrel vaults intersect at right angles

Cubiculum (pl. cubicula)

room, bedroom


body armor that covers the chest and back




a hemispherical roof


a cylindrically shape wall that holds the dome ceiling

Engaged column

A half-round column attached to a wall


an assembly place or court for dispensing law

Fourth Style mural

combines other 3 styles; marks a return to architectural illusionism, but the architectural vistas of the Fourth Style are irrational fantasies.


The cold-bath section of a Roman bathing establishment


basin for rain water


multistoried Roman apartment building

first style mural (Masonry Style)

earliest style of Roman mural painting also called the Masonry Style, where the painting imitated the appearance of costly marble panels

Oculus (pl. oculi)

the round central opening of a dome


the wealthy class in Roman society; landowners


a porch or entrance to a building consisting of a covered and often columned area


a series of engaged columns all around the sides and back of the cella to give the appearance of a peripteral colonnade.


a decorative facing (marble, terracotta) to an ordinary and strong material (concrete)

Second Style mural

architectural style, decoration is no longer restricted to a single plane. The room is meant to look as though it is extended more than it really is (the decoration is architecture)


the moderately warm room in ancient roman baths.


Hard-baked clay, used for sculpture and as a building material. It may be glazed or painted.

Third Style mural

In Roman mural painting, the style in which delicate linear (landscape) fantasies were sketched on predominantly monochromatic (large, solid color) backgrounds.

Triumphal arch

a freestanding arch commemorating an important event, such as a military victory or the opening of a new road


a flattened, rectangular version of a column, often purely decorative,


re-use (stealing) of earlier building material or decorative sculpture for use on new monuments


Any graceful design of lines that come together or cross in various ways


a hard limestone used as a building material by the Etruscans and Romans


hard volcanic rock composed of compacted volcanic ash

Tuscan column

The standard type of Etruscan column. Resembles ancient Greek Doric columns, but is made of wood, is unfluted, and has a base.


In a Roman amphitheater, the cloth awning that could be rolled down from the top of the cavea to shield spectators from sun or rain.


Type of roman portrait showing real detail, brutally realistic portrait


wedge-shaped stone building block used in constructing an arch or vault

Wattle and daub

A wall construction method combining upright branches, woven with twigs and plastered or filled with clay or mud

imagines (wax death max)

Model of the face, imnperfections and all, of a dead person. To be kept inside home as a rememberance of dead; plaster., wax portraits of ancestors in ancient Rome

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