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51 terms

Gardner's Art Through the Ages: Chapter 9-10

art history, etruscan and roman artworks
STUDY
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Amphitheater
an oval large stadium with tiers of seats
Apse
A recess, usually semicircular, in the wall of a Roman basilica or at the east end of a church.
Arcade
a structure composed of a series of arches supported by columns
Arch
(architecture) a masonry construction (usually curved) for spanning an opening and supporting the weight above it
Atrium
the central area in a building, large room
Attic
(architecture) a low wall at the top of the entablature; where the pediment would be but isn't
Barrel vault (tunnel vault)
the simplest form of vault consisting of an unbroken series of arches; it forms a tunnel like shape
Basilica
a civic building for legal and other civic proceedings, rectangular in plan with an entrance usually on a long side and an apse
Caldarium
The hot-bath section of a Roman bathing establishment
Castrum (castra)
An Ancient Roman walled military camp with gridded rectangular layout, later a castle, fort, or fortified town
Centering
the temporary wooden framework used in the construction of arches, vaults, and domes
Chimera
(Greek mythology) fire-breathing she-monster with a lion's head and a goat's body and a serpent's tail
Cinerary urn
a vase for the ashes of a cremated person, also referred to as "funerary urn"
Coffer
an ornamental sunken panel in a ceiling or dome
Compluvium
opening in the roof for air, light, rain
Composite capital
A capital combining Ionic volutes and Corinthian acanthus leaves, first used by the ancient Romans.
Concrete
a strong hard building material composed of sand and gravel and cement and water
groin vault (cross vault)
formed at the point at which 2 barrel vaults intersect at right angles
Cubiculum (pl. cubicula)
room, bedroom
Cuirass
body armor that covers the chest and back
Domus
house
Dome
a hemispherical roof
Drum
a cylindrically shape wall that holds the dome ceiling
Engaged column
A half-round column attached to a wall
Forum
an assembly place or court for dispensing law
Fourth Style mural
combines other 3 styles; marks a return to architectural illusionism, but the architectural vistas of the Fourth Style are irrational fantasies.
Frigidarium
The cold-bath section of a Roman bathing establishment
Impluvium
basin for rain water
Insula
multistoried Roman apartment building
first style mural (Masonry Style)
earliest style of Roman mural painting also called the Masonry Style, where the painting imitated the appearance of costly marble panels
Oculus (pl. oculi)
the round central opening of a dome
Patricians
the wealthy class in Roman society; landowners
Portico
a porch or entrance to a building consisting of a covered and often columned area
Pseudoperipteral
a series of engaged columns all around the sides and back of the cella to give the appearance of a peripteral colonnade.
Revetment
a decorative facing (marble, terracotta) to an ordinary and strong material (concrete)
Second Style mural
architectural style, decoration is no longer restricted to a single plane. The room is meant to look as though it is extended more than it really is (the decoration is architecture)
Tepidarium
the moderately warm room in ancient roman baths.
Terracotta
Hard-baked clay, used for sculpture and as a building material. It may be glazed or painted.
Third Style mural
In Roman mural painting, the style in which delicate linear (landscape) fantasies were sketched on predominantly monochromatic (large, solid color) backgrounds.
Triumphal arch
a freestanding arch commemorating an important event, such as a military victory or the opening of a new road
Pilaster
a flattened, rectangular version of a column, often purely decorative,
Spolia
re-use (stealing) of earlier building material or decorative sculpture for use on new monuments
Tracery
Any graceful design of lines that come together or cross in various ways
Travertine
a hard limestone used as a building material by the Etruscans and Romans
Tufa
hard volcanic rock composed of compacted volcanic ash
Tuscan column
The standard type of Etruscan column. Resembles ancient Greek Doric columns, but is made of wood, is unfluted, and has a base.
Velarium
In a Roman amphitheater, the cloth awning that could be rolled down from the top of the cavea to shield spectators from sun or rain.
Veristic
Type of roman portrait showing real detail, brutally realistic portrait
Voussoir
wedge-shaped stone building block used in constructing an arch or vault
Wattle and daub
A wall construction method combining upright branches, woven with twigs and plastered or filled with clay or mud
imagines (wax death max)
Model of the face, imnperfections and all, of a dead person. To be kept inside home as a rememberance of dead; plaster., wax portraits of ancestors in ancient Rome