APUSH Chapter 12 ID's

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Romanticism
American intellectuals were committing themselves to the liberation of the human spirit; spirit in everyone waiting to be unleashed; every had potenital; it was passion, feeling, &new ideas. Some of the nation's cultural leaders were beginning to strive for another kind of liberation, that would gradually come almost to overshadow their self-conscious nationalism
Hudson River School
Frederic Church, Thomas Cole, Thomas Doughty &Asher Durand-who were, along w/others, known as the Hudson River School. They painted pictures of the unsettled Hudson Valley; considered nature the best source of wisdom &spiritual fulfillment
James Finemore Cooper
1st great American novelist; known as a master of adventure &suspense. Evocation of US wilderness most distinguished his work; most important novels="Leatherstocking Tales", stories could also be seen as an evocation of the idea of the independent individuals w/a natural inner goodness; aslso showed the fear of disorder
Leaves of Grass
Walt Whitman's first volume of work; poems were an unrestrained celebration of democracy, of the liberation of the individual , &of the pleasures of the flesh as well as of the spirit. Expressed Whitman's personal yearning for emotional &physical release &personal fulfillment
Edgar Allan Poe
Embraced the search for the essence of human spirit; wrote stories that were sad and macabre. "The Raven" est him as a major, if controversial literary figure. He evoked images of individuals rising abovve the naroow confines of intellect &exploring the deeper world of the spirit &the emotions.
Herman Melville
Most important of his novels=Moby Dick. Portrayal of Ahab was a story of courage &of the strength of individual will, also a tragedy of pride &revenge. His search for the whale suggested how the search for personal fulfillment &triumph could not only liberate but destroy. His conviction=human spirit was a troubled, often self-destructive force
Transcendentalists
A group of NE writes &philosophers; embraced a theory of the individual that rested on a distinction b/w what they call "reason" and "understanding". Every person's goal should be liberation from the confinesof "understanding" and the cultivation of "reason"
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Leader &voice of the first transcendentalist group in MA; in 1832, devoted himself entirely to writing &teaching the elements of transcendentalism. Said the quest for self-reliance was really a search for communion w/the unity of the universe, the wholeness of God, the great spiritual force that he described as the "Oversoul"; also a committed nationalist, an ardent poroponent of American cultural independence
Henry David Thoreau
Like Emerson, but also said that individual's should work for self-realization by resisting pressures to confrom to society's expectations &responding instead to their own instincts. Went to jail in 1846 rather than pay a poll tax b/c he would not give financial support to a gov that permitted slavery
Utopian Societies
Brook Farm was created in Boston by a transcendentalist; George Ripley, as an experimental community. Individuals would gather to create a new form of organization, where everyone pitched in for the community.
Nathaniel Hawthorne
Wrote the Scarlet Letter. One of the most influential books of its time. Is still read today as a classic. Was written to explain the hard life of an adulturer.
Margaret Fuller
Emphasized the importance of "self" in Transcendentalism, and helped change gender roles in society. Advanced women.
Shakers
Believed in God who was neither male nor female. They did not believe in sexual roles, and believed men and women were equals.
Mormons
Was based on a set of golden tablets found in the mountains of New York. Mormans traveled for 20 years to find a "new Jeruselum", they finally established it in Utah.
Joseph Smith
Was the leaders of the Mormans, he was the one to find the golden tablets in the mountains of New York.
Salt Lake City
Joseph Smith was jailed, but an angry mob broke in, stole him and killed him. His Mormon successor; Brigham Young, traveled across the desert, to establish Salt Lake City.
Protestant Revivalism
Began with the second great awakening early in the century and had, by the 1820's, evolved into a powerful force for scial reform.
Charles Grandison Finney
Was a revivalist, who tried to gain the attention of women. He believed that women found the message liberating, and it would cause their male relatives to follow.
Temperance Crusade
Was a movement to try and ban all "bad" habits, such as alcoholism, and adulturey, and other "bad" things.
Phrenology
A health fad, where it was believed that different parts of your brain/head were responsible for the way you acted, and the way you looked.
Contagion Theory
A scientist of America published a paper about the spread of Contagion in America. It was met by harsh criticism, until a scientist in in Europe confirmed that he was correct.
Horace Mann
Made reforms to boost widespread education, he believed that it was important for the electorate of the future to be knowledgable on politics.
Public Education
Many reforms were being made towards the betterment of education, but Massachussets was the exception to the masses. Its teachers were usually capable men and women.
Benevolent Empire
Institutions were eventually created for the handicapped members of society. The first school for the blind was created in Boston.
Asylum Movement
Asylums began to be built; it was a way to get the metally ill and the crazy people off the streets, and lock them away, so that nobody would have to deal with them. It was pretty much a prison.
Indian Reservations
Originally, it was just made that the indians would be moved away from the main population, but then the idea changed to them being contained to enclosed areas of land.
Feminism
while involved in the movements on behalf of temperance and abolitoin of slavery, women expressed their awareness of hte problems that they themselves faced in a male-dominated society. Women in the 1830s and 1840s were angered by the new set of barriers that had emerged from teh doctrine of "separate spheres" and the transformation of the family.
Elisabeth Cady Stanton
In 1840, a group of women delegates arrived at a world antislavery convention in London, only to be turned away by the men who controled the proceedings. Stanton, Mott, Anthony and others were convinced that they needed to elevate the status of women. They began to draw parallels btwn the plight of women and the plight of slaves. (one of the only ones who wasnt a Quaker)
Lucretia Mott
Along with Stanton and Anthony, organized the Femenist movement, the Seneca Falls Convention
Susan B. Anthony
Along with Stanton and Mott, organized Femenist movement; the Seneca Falls Convention
Seneca Falls Convention
organized in 1848 by Stanton, Mott and Antony in Seneca Falls, New York, to discuss the question of women's rights. "Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions" emerged.
Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions
emerged at Seneca Falls; stated that "all men and women are created equal," that women no less than men have certain inalienable rights. Their most prominent demand was for the right to vote, thus launching movement for women suffrage. Document rejected on the belief that men and women should have "separate spheres" in society.
Quakers
many women in the femenist movement were Quakers; Quakerism had long embraced teh ideal of sexual equality and had tolerated, indeed encouraged, the emergence of women as preachers and community leaders. Also, leaders of antislavery movements.
Abolitionism
the sentiment to abolish slavery
American Colonization Society
the antislavery movement centered around the idea of colonization--the effort to encourage the resettlement of AA in African of the Caribbean. In 1817, a group of white Virginians organized the American Colonization Society, which worked to challenge slavery ; proposed the gradual freeing of slaves, with masters recieving conpensations through funds raised by private charity or state legislatures. Then, it would transport liberated slaves out of the country and help them to establish a new society of their own.
William Lloyd Garrison
born in Mass in 1805, Garrison was an assistant int eh 1820s to the NJ Quaker Benjamin Lundy. They were both against slavery, but Garrison returned to Boston to found his own newspaper, "The Liberator." his philosophy: supporters of slavery should view the institution from the point of view of the black man, not the white slaveowner.
American Antislavery Society
Garrison attracted enough followers to form the New England Antislavery Society, and then a year later, in 1833, the American Antislavery Society. it was successful as a result of the similarity btwn the abolitionism and other movements of the era.
Frederick Douglass
greatest AA abolitionist of all. born a slave in Maryland, Douglass escaped to Massachusetts in 1838, became an outspoken leader of antislavery sentiment, and spent 2 yrs lecturing in England. When he returned to the US, in 1847, he bought his freedom and founded the antislavery newspaper, the "North Star", in Rochester, NY. known for his autobiography, Douglass demanded freedom and social and economic equality for AA
Worldwide Antislavery Movements
the abolitionist movement spread all around the world, leading to violence from those anti-abolitionist
Anti-abolitionist violence
due to the spread of the abolitionist movement, violence arose from those in favor of slavery in the 1830s. (ex, a mob in Philly attacked the abolitionist headquarters, the "Temple fo Liberty," in 1834, burned it to the ground, and began a bloody race riot.
Amistad Case
Amistad=spanish slave vessel. Africans destined for slavery in Cuba had seized the ship from its crew in 1839 and tried to return it to Africa. but the US naby had seized the ship and held the Africans as pirates. the abolitioinist support got the case to reach the Suprem Court, the legal effort to declare the slaves free.(freen in 1841)
"Free Soil" movement
abolitionists never formed a party. Instead, they stood for "free soil", for keeping slavery out or the territoriesl sine were concerned about AA welfare, others just wanted the west to be a land just for whties. Garrison dismissed free-soilism as "white-mansims"
Harriet Beecher Stowe
wrote "Uncle Tom's Cabin", published as a book in 1852. became a hero to many in the North
Uncle Tom's Cabin
combined the emotional conventions fo the sentimental novel with the political ideas of the abolition movement, and to sensational effect. it bought the message fo abolitioin to a whole new audience, those who read books and those who saw dramatizations of its story by countless theater companies. the novel helped to inflame sectional tensions to a new level of passion.