43 terms

1. Certificates and Documents

Private Pilot Oral Exam
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A. Certification

What are the eligibility requirements for a private pilot (airplane) certificate? (14 CFR 61.103)
a. Be at least 17 years of age.
b. Be able to read, speak, write, and understand the English language.
c. Hold a U.S. student pilot certificate, sport pilot certificate, or recreational certificate.
d. Hold at least a current Third Class medical certificate.
e. Received the required ground and flight training endorsements.
f. Meet the applicable aeronautical experience requirements.
g. Passed the required knowledge and practical tests.
B. Privileges and Limitations

1. What privileges and limitations apply to a private pilot? (14 CFR 61.113)
No person why certificate may holds a private pilot act as a pilot-in-command of an aircraft that is carrying passengers or property for compensation or hire; nor may that person, for compensation or hire, act as PIC of an aircraft.

A private pilot...

a. may act as PIC of an aircraft in connection with any business or employment if it is only incidental to that business or employment and does not carry passengers or property for compensation or hire.

b. may not pay less than the pro rata share of the operating expenses of a flight with passengers, provided the expenses involve only fuel, oil, airport expenditures, or rental fees.

c. may act as PIC of a charitable, nonprofit, or community event flight described in 14 CFR 91.146, if the sponsor and pilot comply with the requirements of that regulation.

d. may be reimbursed for aircraft operating expenses that are directly related to search and location operations provided the expenses involve only fuel, oil, airport expenditures, or rental fees, and the operation is sanctioned and under the direction and control of local, state, or federal agencies or organizations that search and location operations.

e. may demonstrate an aircraft in flight to a prospective buyer if the private pilot is an aircraft salesman and has at least 200 hours of logged flight time.

f. may act as PIC of an aircraft towing a glider or unpowered ultralight vehicle, provided they meet the requirements of 14 CFR 61.69.

g. may act as PIC for the purpose of conduction a production flight test in a light-sport aircraft intended for certification in the light-sport category, provided they meet the requirements of 14 CFR 61.113(h).
B. Privileges and Limitations

2. To act as a required pilot flight crewmember of a civil aircraft, what must a pilot have in his/her physical possession or readily accessible in the aircraft? (14 CFR 61.3)
a. A pilot certificate (or special purpose pilot authorization)

b. A photo identification

c. A medical certificate (with certain exceptions as provided in 14 CFR 61.3)
B. Privileges and Limitations

3. What is the definition of a high-performance airplane, and what must you do to act as PIC of such an airplane? (14 CFR 61.31)
A high-performance airplane is an airplane with an engine of more than 200 horsepower.

To act as PIC of a high-performance airplane you must have:

a. received and logged ground and flight training from an authorized flight instructor in a high-performance airplane, or in a flight simulator or flight training device that is representative of a high-performance airplane and have been found proficient in the operation and systems of that airplane.

b. received and logged a one-time endorsement in your logbook from an authorized instructor who certifies you are proficient to operate a high-performance airplane.

NOTE: The training and endorsement required by this regulations is not required if the person has logged flight time as PIC of a high-performance airplane, or in a flight simulator or flight training device that is representative of a high-performance airplane prior to August 4, 1997.
B. Privileges and Limitations

4. Other than high-performance and complex aircraft, what other types of aircraft (ASEL) require specific training and logbook endorsements from an appropriately rated flight instructor? (14 CFR 61.31)
High Altitude Airplane

No person may act as pilot-in-command of a pressurized airplane that has a service ceiling or maximum operating altitude (which ever is lower), above 25,000' MSL unless that person has complete the ground and flight training specified and has received a logbook or training record endorsement from an authorized instructor certifying satisfactory completion of the training.

Tailwheel Airplane

No person may act as PIC of a tailwheel airplane unless that pilot has received flight instruction from an authorized flight instructor who has found the pilot competent to operate a tailwheel airplane and has made a one-time endorsement so stating in the pilot's logbook. The endorsement is not required if a pilot has logged flight time as PIC of tailwheel airplanes prior to April 15, 1991.
B. Privileges and Limitations

5. What is the definition of a complex airplane, and what must you do to act as PIC of such an airplane?
(14 CFR 61.31)
-retractable landing gear
-flaps
-controllable pitch propeller, including airplanes equipped with a full-authority digital engine control (FADEC)

To act as PIC, you must have

a. received and logged ground and flight training from an authorized flight instructor in a complex airplane, or in a flight simulator or flight training device that is representative of a complex airplane and have been found proficient in the operation and systems of that airplane.

b. received a one-time endorsement in your logbook from an authorized instructor who certifies you are proficient to operate a complex airplane.

NOTE: The training and endorsement required by this regulation is not required if the person has logged flight time as PIC of a complex airplane, or in a flight simulator or flight training device that is representative of a complex airplane prior to August 4, 1997.
B. Privileges and Limitations

6. With respect to certification, privileges, and limitations of airmen, define the terms:

Category
Class
Type

(14 CFR Part 1)
Category - a broad classification of aircraft; i.e. airplane, rotorcraft, glider, etc.

Class - a classification of aircraft within a category having similar operating characteristics; i.e. single-engine land, multi-engine land, etc.

Type - a specific make and basic model of aircraft including modifications that do not change its handling or flight characteristics; i.e. DC-9, B-737, C-150, etc.
C. Currency Requirements

1. What are the requirements to remain current as a private pilot?

(14 CFR 61.56, 61.57)
a. Within the preceding 24 months, accomplished a flight review given in an aircraft for which that pilot is rated by an authorized instructor and received a logbook endorsement certifying that the person has satisfactorily completed the review.

b. To carry passengers, a pilot must have made, within the preceding 90 days -

- 3 takeoffs and landings as the sole manipulator of flight controls of an aircraft of the same category and class and, if a type rating is required, of the same type
-if the aircraft is a tailwheel airplane, the landings must have been made to a full stop in an airplane with a tailwheel
-if operations are to be conducted during the period beginning 1 hour after sunset and ending 1 hour before sunrise, with passengers on board, the PIC must have, within the preceding 90 days, made at least 3 takeoffs and 3 landings to a full stop during that period in an aircraft of the same category, class, and type (if a type is required) of aircraft to be used

NOTE: Takeoffs and landings required by this regulation may be accomplished in a flight simulator or flight training device that is approved by the administrator and used in accordance with an approved course conducted by a certificated training center.
C. Currency Requirements

2. To exercise the privileges of a private pilot certificate, what medical certificate is required, and how long is it valid?

(14 CFR 61.23)
You must hold at least a third-class medical certificate. The medical certificate expires at the end of the last day of:

a. The 60th month after the month of the date of examination shown on the certificate, if on the date of your most recent medical examination you were under the age of 40.

b. The 24th month after the month of the date of the examination shown on the certificate, if on the date of your most recent medical examination you were over the age of 40.
C. Currency Requirements

3. If a pilot changes his/her permanent mailing address and fails to notify the FAA Airmen Certification branch of the new address, how long may the pilot continue to exercise the privileges of his/her pilot certificate?

(14 CFR 61.60)
30 days after the date of the move.
D. Aircraft Certificates and Documents

1. What documents are required on board an aircraft prior to flight?

(14 CFR 91.203, 91.9)
A - Airworthiness Certificate
R - Registration Certificate
O - Owner's manual and operating limitations
W - Weight and balance data
D. Aircraft Certificates and Documents

2. How can a pilot determine if his/her aircraft is equipped with a Mode C altitude encoding transponder?
By referencing the current weight and balance equipment list for that aircraft, a pilot could positively determine whether or not a Mode C transponder is installed.
D. Aircraft Certificates and Documents

3. Does an aircraft's registration certificate have an expiration date?

(14 CFR 47.40)
Yes.

As of October 1, 2010, specific registration expiration dates have been established for all aircraft registered before October 1, 2010.

Those aircraft require re-registration according to a specific schedule.

All initial aircraft registrations issued on or after October 1, 2010, will expire three years after the last day of the month in which they were issued.
E. Aircraft Maintenance Requirements

1. Who is responsible for ensuring that an aircraft is maintained in an airworthy condition?

(14 CFR 91.403)
The owner or operator of an aircraft is primarily responsible for maintaining an aircraft in an airworthy condition.
E. Aircraft Maintenance Requirements

2. After aircraft inspections have been made and defects have been repaired, who is responsible for determining that the aircraft is in an airworthy condition?

(14 CFR 91.7)
The pilot-in-command of a civil aircraft is responsible for determining whether that aircraft is in condition for safe flight.

The pilot-in-command of a civil aircraft is responsible for determining whether that aircraft is in condition for safe flight.

The pilot-in-command shall discontinue the flight when unairworthy mechanical, electrical, or structural conditions occur.
E. Aircraft Maintenance Requirements

3. What records or documents should be checked to determine that the owner or operator of an aircraft has complied wit all required inspections and airworthiness directives?

(14 CFR 91.405)
The maintenance records (aircraft and engine logbooks). Each owner or operator of an aircraft shall ensure that maintenance personnel make appropriate entries in the aircraft maintenance records indicating the aircraft has been approved for return to service.
E. Aircraft Maintenance Requirements

4. What regulations apply concerning the operation of an aircraft that has had alterations or repairs which may have substantially affected its operation in flight?

(14 CFR 91.407)
No person may operate or carry passengers in any aircraft that has undergone maintenance, preventative maintenance, rebuilding, or alteration that may have appreciably changed its flight characteristics or substantially affected its operation in flight until an appropriately rated pilot with at least a private pilot certificate

a. flies the aircraft;

b. makes an operational check of the maintenance performed or alteration made; and

c. logs the flight in the aircraft records.
E. Aircraft Maintenance Requirements

5. What is an Airworthiness Certificate and how long does it remain valid?

(FAA-H-8083-25)
An Airworthiness Certificate is issued by the FAA only after the aircraft has been inspected and found to meet the requirements of 14 CFR Part 21, and is in a condition for safe operation. Under any circumstances,t he aircraft must meet the requirements of the original type certificate. The certificate must be displayed in the aircraft so that it is legible to passengers or crew whenever the aircraft is operated, and it may be transferred with the aircraft except when sold to a foreign purchaser. Standard Airworthiness Certificates remain in effect as long as the aircraft receives the required maintenance and is properly registered in the United States.
E. Aircraft Maintenance Requirements

6. Can a pilot conduct flight operations in an aircraft with known inoperative equipment?

(AC 91-67, 14 CFR 91.213)
Yes, under specific conditions. 14 CFR Part 91 describes acceptable methods for the operation of an aircraft with certain inoperative instruments and equipment that are not essential for safe flight - they are:

a. Operation of aircraft with a Minimum Equipment List (MEL), as authorized by 14 CFR Part 91.213(a)

b. Operation of aircraft without a MEL under 14 CFR Part 91.213d
E. Aircraft Maintenance Requirements

7. What are Minimum Equipment Lists?

(AC 91-67)
The Minimum Equipment List (MEL) is a precise listing of instruments, equipment and procedures that allows an aircraft to be operated under specific conditions with inoperative equipment. The MEL is the specific inoperative document for a particular make and model aircraft by serial and registration numbers; e.g., BE-200, N12345. The FAA-approved MEL includes only those items of equipment that the FAA deems may be inoperative and still maintain an acceptable level of safety with appropriate conditions and limitations.
E. Aircraft Maintenance Requirements

8. What limitations apply to aircraft operations conducted using the deferral provision of 14 CFR 91.213(d)?

(FAA-H-8083-25)
When inoperative equipment is found during preflight or prior to departure, the decision should be to cancel the flight, obtain maintenance prior to the flight, or to defer the item or equipment. Maintenance deferrals are not sued for inflight discrepancies. The manufacturer's AFM/POH procedures are to be used in those situations.
E. Aircraft Maintenance Requirements

9. What limitations apply to aircraft operations being conducted using MELSs?

(FAA-8083-25)
The use of an MEL for a small, non-turbine-powered airplane operated under Part 91 allows for the deferral of inoperative items or equipment. The FAA considers an approved MEL to be a supplemental type certificate (STC) issued to an aircraft by serial number and registration number. Once an operator requests a MEL, and a Letter of Authorization (LOA) is issued by the FAA, then the MEL becomes mandatory for that airplane. All maintenance deferrals must be done in accordance with the MEL and the operator-generated procedures document.
E. Aircraft Maintenance Requirements

10. What are the procedures to follow when using 14 CFR 91.213(d) for deferral of inoperative equipment?

(FAA-H-8083-25)
The pilot determines whether the inoperative equipment is required by type design, the regulations, or ADs. If the inoperative item is not required, and the airplane can be safely operated without it, the deferral may be made. Then the pilot removes or deactivates the inoperative item, and places an INOPERATIVE placard near the appropriate switch, control, or indicator.

If deactivation or removal involves maintenance (removal always will), it must be accomplished by certificated maintenance personnel. For example, if the position lights (installed equipment) were discovered to be inoperative prior to a daytime flight, the pilot would follow the requirements of section 91.213(d).
E. Aircraft Maintenance Requirements

11. What are the required maintenance inspections for aircraft?

(14 CFR 91.409)
a. Annual inspection - within the preceding 12 calendar months

b. 100-hour inspection - if carrying any person (other than a crewmember for hire or giving flight instruction for hire.

If an aircraft is operated for hire it must have a 100-hour inspection as well as an annual inspection when due. If not operated for hire, it must have an annual inspection only.
E. Aircraft Maintenance Requirements

12. If an aircraft has been on a schedule of inspection every 100 hours, under what condition may it continue to operate beyond the 100 hours without a new inspection?

(14 CFR 91.409)
The 100-hour limitation may be exceeded by not more than 10 hours while en route to a place where the inspection can be done. The excess time used to reach a place where the inspection can be done must be included in computing the next 100 hours of time in service.
E. Aircraft Maintenance Requirements

13. What is the difference between an annual inspection and a 100-hour inspection?

(14 CFR Part 43)
No differences exist when when comparing the content of an annual inspection with that of a 100-hour inspection. The difference is who is allowed to perform these inspections. Only an A&P mechanic with an Inspection Authorization can perform an annual inspection. 100-hour inspections may be performed by any A&P mechanic (no IA required).
E. Aircraft Maintenance Requirements

14. Be capable of locating the required maintenance and equipment inspections for your aircraft in the aircraft and engine logbooks. What should these include?

(14 CFR 91.409, 91.171, 91.411, 91.413, and 91.207)
AV1ATE

A - Annual inspection and applicable ADs complied with, every 12 calendar months (14 CFR 91.409)

V - VOR check, if used for IFR, every 30 days (14 CFR 91.171)

1 - 100-hour inspection, if used for hire or flight instruction (14 CFR 91.409)

A - Altimete, altitude reporting equipment, and static pressure systems tested and inspected (for IFR ops), every 24 calendar months (14 CFR 91.411)

T - Transponder tests and inspections, every 24 calendar months (14 CFR 91.413)

E - Emergency locator transmitter, operation and battery condition inspected every 12 calendar months (14 CFR 91.207)
E. Aircraft Maintenance Requirements

15. What are some of the responsibilities an aircraft owner ha pertaining to aircraft documents, maintenance and inspections of their aircraft?

(FAA-H-8083-25)
Aircraft owners must:

a. Have a current Airworthiness Certificate and Aircraft Registration in the aircraft.

b. Maintain the aircraft in an airworthy condition including compliance with all applicable Airworthiness Directives.

c. Ensure maintenance is properly recorded.

d. Keep abreast of current regulations concerning the operation of that aircraft.

e. Notify the FAA Civil Aviation Registry immediately of any change of permanent mailing address, or of the sale or export of the aircraft, or of the loss of citizenship.

f. Have a current FCC radio station license if equipped with radios, including emergency locator transmitter (ELT), if operated outside of the United States.
E. Aircraft Maintenance Requirements

16. Define "preventative maintenance."

(FAA-H-8083-25)
"Preventative maintenance" means simple means simple or minor preservation operations and the replacement of small standard parts not involving complex assembly operations.

Certificated pilots, excluding student pilots, sport pilots,and recreational pilots, may perform preventive maintenance on any aircraft that is owned or operated by them provided that aircraft is not sued in air carrier service. 14 CFR Part 43 identifies typical preventive maintenance operations which include such basic items as oil changes, wheel bearing lubrication, hydraulic fluid )brakes, landing gear system) refills.
E. Aircraft Maintenance Requirements

17. What are "Special Flight Permits," and when are they necessary?

(14 CFR 91.213, 14 CFR 21.197)
A Special Flight Permit may be issued for an aircraft that may not currently meet applicable airworthiness requirements but is capable of safe flight. These permits are typically issued for the following purposes:

a. Flying an aircraft to a base where repairs, alterations or maintenance are to be performed, or to a point of storage.

b. Delivering or exporting an aircraft.

c. Production flight testing new-production aircraft.

d. Evacuating aircraft from areas of impending danger.

e. Conducting customer demonstration flights in new-production aircraft that have satisfactorily completed production flight tests.
E. Aircraft Maintenance Requirements

18. How are "Special Flight Permits" obtained?

(FAA-H-8083-25)
If a special flight permit is needed, assistance and the necessary forms may be obtained from the local FSDO or Designated Airworthiness Representative (DAR).
E. Aircraft Maintenance Requirements

19. What are "Airworthiness Directives" (ADs)?

(FAA-H-8083-25)
An AD is the medium the FAA uses to notify aircraft owners and other potentially interested persons of unsafe conditions that may exist because of design defects, maintenance, or other causes, and to specify the conditions under which the product may continue to be operated. ADs are regulatory in nature, and compliance is mandatory. It is the aircraft owner's or operator's responsibility to ensure compliance with all pertinent ADs. ADs are divided into two categories: those of an emergency nature requiring immediate compliance prior to further flight and those of a less urgent nature requiring compliance within a specified period of time. All ADs and the AD Biweekly are free on the Internet at http://rgl.faa.gov.
E. Aircraft Maintenance Requirements

20. Are electronic flight bags (EFBs) approved for use as a replacement for paper reference material (POH & supplements, etc.) in the cockpit?

(AC 91-78)
Yes.

EFBs can be used during all phases of flight operations in lieu of paper reference material when the information displayed is the functional equivalent of the paper reference material replaced and is current, up-to-date, and valid. It is recommended that a secondary or back-up source of aeronautical information necessary for the flight be available.
ADDITIONAL STUDY QUESTIONS

1. As a newly certificated private pilot, you are ready to utilize your certificate. I am a friend and need you to fly a package to a distant destination. I will pay for the airplane if you accept. Do the regulations allow you to accept this offer?

(14 CFR 61.113)
No.

A private pilot may may not act as pilot in command of an aircraft that is carrying passengers or property for compensation or hire.
ADDITIONAL STUDY QUESTIONS

2. Is a Private Pilot required to log all flight time?

(14 CFR 61.51)
Each person must document and record the following time in a manner acceptable to the Administrator:

1 - Training and aeronautical experience used to meet the requirements for a certificate rating, or flight review of this part.

2 - The aeronautical experience required for meeting the recent flight experience requirements of this part.
ADDITIONAL STUDY QUESTIONS

3. If the aircraft has recently had a transfer of ownership, how long will the temporary registration certificate be valid?

(14 CFR 47.31)
(c) After compliance with paragraph (a) of this section, the applicant for registration of an aircraft last previously registered in the United States must carry the second copy of the Aircraft Registration Application in the aircraft as temporary authority to operate without registration.

(1) This temporary authority is valid for operation within the United States until the date the applicant receives the Certificate of Aircraft Registration or until the date the FAA denies the application, but in no case for more than 90 days after the date the applicant signs the application. If by 90 days after the date the applicant signs the Aircraft Registration Application, the FAA has neither issued the Certificate of Aircraft Registration nor denied the application, the Registry will issue a letter of extension that serves as authority to continue to operate the aircraft without registration while it is carried in the aircraft.

(2) This temporary authority is not available in connection with any Aircraft Registration Application received when 12 months have passed since the receipt of the first application following transfer of ownership by the last registered owner.

(3) If there is no registration number assigned at the time application for registration is made, the second copy of the Aircraft Registration Application may not be used as temporary authority to operate the aircraft.
ADDITIONAL STUDY QUESTIONS

4. The regulations state that operating costs may be shared with your passengers. What percentage of operating costs may be shared with the passengers?

(14 CFR 61.113)
A private pilot may not pay less than the pro rata share of the operating expenses of a flight with passengers, provided the expenses involve only fuel, oil, airport expenditures, or rental fees.
ADDITIONAL STUDY QUESTIONS

5. How can a pilot determine if all of the required placards are present in his/her airplane?

(AFM; FAA-H-8083-25)
Check the AFM/POH.
ADDITIONAL STUDY QUESTIONS

6. During preflight, you discover that one of the position lights (installed equipment) is inoperative prior to a daytime flight. Can you legally conduct the flight?

(14 CFR 91.213(d); FAA-H-8083-25)
91.213

(d) Except for operations conducted in accordance with paragraph (a) or (c) of this section, a person may takeoff an aircraft in operations conducted under this part with inoperative instruments and equipment without an approved Minimum Equipment List provided

2. The inoperative instruments and equipment are not -
(i) Part of the VFR-day type certification instruments and equipment prescribed in the applicable airworthiness regulations under which the aircraft was type certificated.

3. (ii) Deactivated and placarded "inoperative."
ADDITIONAL STUDY QUESTIONS

7. Preventative maintenance has been performed on an aircraft. What paperwork is required?

(14 CFR 43.9)
An entry in the maintenance record of that equipment containing the following information:

1. A description (or reference to data acceptable to the Administrator) of work performed.
2. The date of completion of the work performed.
3. The name of the person performing the work if other than the person specified in paragraph (a)(4) of this section.
4. The work performed on the aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or component part has been performed satisfactorily, the signature, certificate number, and kind of certificate held by the person approving the work. The signature constitutes the approval for return to service only for the work performed.
ADDITIONAL STUDY QUESTIONS

8. How can a pilot determine if all applicable Airworthiness Directives have been complied with for his/her airplane?

(14 CFR Part 43)
Check the maintenance records.
ADDITIONAL STUDY QUESTIONS

9. If the AFM for an aircraft you are about to fly is missing, what substitution may be made, if any?

(14 CFR 91.9; FAA-H-8083-25)
None?
ADDITIONAL STUDY QUESTIONS

10. What is an "equipment list," and where is it normally located?

(FAA-H-8083-1)
An MEL is a list of equipment that must be installed and operable for the aircraft to be considered airworthy. It is aircraft-specific and spells out which pieces of equipment may be inoperable while maintaining airworthiness. If something is found to be inoperative, the pilot goes to the MEL, finds the entry for that item, and determines if the airplane must be grounded until that piece of equipment is fixed.
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