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Cell Transport/ Cell Organelles
Terms in this set (55)
The movement of materials across the cell membrane
1. All organisms are composed of cells (unicellular or Multicellular)
2. All cells come from pre-existing cells (A cell divides to form two identical cells)
3. The cell is the basic unit of life.
1. Separates the cell from the surrounding environment
2. Found in BOTH plant and animal cells
3. "Fluid Mosaic Model"-What makes up the plasma membrane
Double layer of phospholipid molecules with the hydrophilic tails pointing inward and the hydrophilic heads facing outwards
1. Transport ions and molecules across the plasma membrane
2. Enzymes to carry out chemical reactions
3. Receptors for hormones
Found between phospholipid tails to prevent them from sticking together
1. Movement of materials through the plasma membrane
2. Does NOT require energy
Ex. Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide, Molecules, Water, Lipids
1. Adhesion to other cells
2. Recognition of molecules at the membrane surface
1. Form of passive transport
2. Movement of ions or soluble molecules that move from a region of HIGHER concentration to a region of LOWER concentration
-High Concentration- A lot
of molecules in a smaller area
-Low Concentration- Molecules are very spread out
3. Diffusion results from the random movement of molecules
1. The diffusion of water through the plasma membrane, or any semipermeable membrane
2. Water moves from an area of high water concentration to an area of low water concentration
-Solute- the substance that gets dissolved
-Ex. Sugar water- sugar is the solute
The concentration of solute molecules outside the cell is equal to the concentration inside the cell
1. Solute concentration is greater OUTSIDE the cell
2. Water will diffuse out of the cell, the cell will shrink
1. Solute concentration is greater INSIDE the cell
2. Water will diffuse into the cell, the cell will expand
A form of passive transport where molecules and ions enter a cell via carrier proteins. The carrier proteins will only bind with a specific molecule. And that carrier protein will move the molecule DOWN the concentration gradient from high to low. NO ENERGY REQUIRED.
Ex. sugars because they are too big to go directly through the membrane.
1. Protein responsible for transporting specific substances through the cell membrane
2. Fixed and part of the membrane
Active transport uses ATP to move materials AGAINST a concentration gradient from low solute concentration to high solute concentration. ENERGY REQUIRED
Ex. Sodium and Potassium ions
1. Materials are ingested by the cell
2. The membrane forms a vesicle around the material ingested
1. How bulky particles or large molecules are transported OUT of a cell
2. Vesicle blinds with the membrane and the particle is pushed out
Fluid Mosaic Model
What makes up the plasma membrane
1. Cell membrane and cell well
2. No real nucleus-just a large circular molecule of DNA
3. Smaller cells
1. Has organelles
2. True Nucleus-DNA found within a nuclear envelope
3. Larger cells
1. Helps protect and support the cell.
2. Gives a plant cell a shape.
3. IN PLANT
1. Carrier of hereditary information
2. Surrounded by the nuclear envelope/contain pores
3. Monitors the cell-ensures that the complex molecules that the cell requires are synthesized
1. Found Inside
2. Creates Ribosomes
1. Protects the Nucleus. Lets things in and out of the Nucleus.
2. IN BOTH.
Allows movement of substances. Gives cells their shape. Keeps organelles in their place.
1. The remainder of the cytoplasm when the organelles are taken out. (Mainly made up of water and dissolved substances)
2. Lots of chemical reactions occur here
3. PLANT ONLY
Balanced and stable internal environment
Provides the energy necessary to carry out life functions
Control and coordination of various activities (ex. Nucleus)
Membrane bound compartments
1. Gives cell its shape and structure 2. IN BOTH
1. Makes proteins
2. IN BOTH
1. Looks like stacks of flattened sacs
2. Packaging and distribution center
3. Packages materials to be sent out to other parts of the cell
4. IN BOTH
1. Produced by Golgi body
2. A little sac that carries products to the plasma membrane
1. Stores water, food, waste and more for a plant cell.
2. IN PLANT.
1. Powerhouse of the cell
2. Site of cellular respiration
3. Creates energy for the cell
4. IN BOTH
Nutrients needed to carry out life functions
Removal of cellular waste products
Utilizes the products of synthesis
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
1. WITHOUT ribosomes
2. Lipid synthesis and transport
3. IN BOTH
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
1. WITH ribosomes
2. Protein synthesis and transport
1. Cell's clean up crew
2. Keeps the cytoplasm clean
1. Similar to lysosomes
2. Break down hydrogen peroxide into oxygen and water (common in kidney and liver cells)
1. Only in animal cells
2. Most active during cell division
1. Found on the outside of cells
2. Locomotive purposes in single celled organisms (movement)
3. IN BOTH
1. Only found in plant cells
2. Site of photosynthesis
Absorption and distribution of materials within an organism
Large molecules built from smaller ones (ex.Building Proteins)
Species survival is dependent upon reproduction
What affects the rate of diffusion?
1. Concentration: The more concentrated, the more rapid the diffusion.
2. Temperature: As temperature increases, rate of diffusion increases.
3. Pressure: As pressure increases, rate of diffusion increases
Know why some molecules can get through the cell membrane but others cannot be bale to give examples of these molecules.
What are the differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes?
1. Prokaryotic: Cell membrane and cell wall, No nucleus (just a large circular molecule of DNA), smaller cell, no organelles
2. Eukaryotic: Cell membranes and some have cell wall, Has nucleus (DNA found within a nucleur envelope), larger cells, has organelles.
What are the differences between plant and animal cells?
To start off, plant cells have a rectangular shape while animal cells have a more
circular structure. Also, they contain different parts. The plant cell has a cell wall, large vacuole, and chloroplasts. Animal cells contain centrioles, small vacuoles, and cilia.
Know how the life functions work together.
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