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Chromosomes separate from the centromere, dividing to arrive at poles

Asexual reproduction

involves passing traits from only one parent to the next generation

Binary fission

a single parent cell splits to produce two identical daughter cells.

Cell cycle

an ordered sequence of steps that is repeated from the time of one division to the time of the next

Cell division

reproduction that results in new cells.

Cell plate

In plants, vesicles containing cell wall material collect in the center of the cell then gradually fuse, from the inside out, which gradually develops into a new wall between the two new cells. The membranes surrounding the vesicles fuse to form the new parts of the plasma membrane.


where sister chromatids are joined together


a combination of DNA and proteins, unwound as long, thin fibers


the organisms DNA in an organized structure

Cleavage furrow

In animals, a ring of microfilaments contracts around the periphery of the cell, that eventually divides the cytoplasm.

Crossing over (genetic recombination)



the division of the cytoplasm. This usually, but not always, accompanies telophase.


loss of a fragment of chromosome


starting reproduction

Gametes (haploid cell)

eggs and sperm

Homologous chromosomes

two chromosomes composing a pair, one from each parent


represents 90% or more of the total cycle time and is divided into G1, S, and G2


reattachments of a fragment in reverse order, less likely to produce harmful effects because all the chromosome's genes are still present.


a photographic inventory of an individual's chromosomes


cell division that produces haploid gametes in diploid organisms


The spindle is fully formed; chromosomes are aligned single file with centromeres on the metaphase plate (the plane that cuts the spindle's equator).


the process by which a cell divides into two daughter cells, each of which has the same number of chromosomes as the original cell.

Mitotic phase (M phase)

Cell division itself that involves two subprocesses, mitosis (nuclear division) and cytokinesis (cytoplasmic division).

Mitotic spindle

provides a scaffold for the movement of chromosomes and attaches to chromosomes at their kinetochore (occurs in the first stage of mitosis).


failure of chromosome pairs to separate during meiosis


The mitotic spindle is forming, emerging from two centrosomes. Centrosomes migrate to opposite ends of the cell. This stage ends when the chromatins have completely coiled into chromosomes; nucleoli and nuclear membrane disperse. The mitotic spindle provides a scaffold for the movement of chromosomes and attaches to chromosomes at their kinetochore.

S phase


Sexual reproduction

involves passing traits from two parents to the next generation

Sister chromatids

identical copies of DNA of each chromosome

Somatic cell (diploid cell)

nonsex cells

Spindle fiber



the reverse of prophase: Cell elongation continues, a nuclear envelope forms around chromosomes, chromosomes uncoil, and nucleoli reappear.


involves the transfer of a chromosome fragment between nonhomologous chromosomes, may or may not be harmful.


an ovum that has been fertilized by a spermatozoon

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