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33 terms

Bio 1 Ch 4, cell structure & function

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cell
the smallest unit that can carry out life processes
cell theory
has three essential parts that say all living organisms are composed of one or more cell, cells are the vasic units of structure and functiuon in an organism, cells come only from the reproduction of existing cells
plasma membrane
covers a cell's surface and acts as a barrier between the inside and th outside of a cell
cytoplasm
region of the cell that is within the plasma membrane and that includes the fluid, the cytoskeleton, and all of the organelles except the nucleus is call the
cytosol
part of the cytoplasm that includes molecules and small particles, such as robosomes, but not membrane-bound organelles is the
nucleus
contains DNA and chromosomes, is a control center for cells
Prokaryotes
organisms that lack a membrane-bound nucleus and membrane-bound organelles
eukaryotes
organisms made up of one or more cells that have a nucleus nad membrane-bound organelles
organelles
well-defined intracellular bodies that perform specific functions for the cell
tissue
group of similar cells and their products that carry outa specific function
organs
groups of tissues that perform a particular job in an organism are called
organ system
group of organs that accomplish related tasks
phospholipid bilayer
the result of phospholipisd lining up so that their heads point outward toward the water and their tails poin inward away from water resulting in a double layer
chromosomes
structures in the nucleus made of DNA and protein
nuclear envelope
double membrane perforated with pores that control the flow of materials in and out of the nucleus
nucleolus
site where DNA is concentrated when it is in the process of making ribosomal RNA
ribosomes
organelles made of protein and RNA that direct protein syntheis in the cytoplasm
mitochondria
tiny organelles that transfer energy from organic molecule to ATP "powerhouse"
endoplasmic reticulum
system of membranous tubes and sacs that molecules move along from one part of the cell to another
Golgi apparatus
stack of membranes in the cell that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum
lysosomes
vesicles that contain digestive enzymes
cytoskeleton
tubes and filaments give shape to cell form the inside
microtubules
hollow tubes made of protien
microfilaments
fine, threadlike proteins found in the cell's cytoskeleton
cillia
hair like. it assits in motion.
flagella
whiplike tails found in one-celled organisms to aid in movement
centrioles
two tiny structures located in the cytoplasm near the nuclear envelope
cell wall
rigid layer that lies outside the cell's plasma membrane
central vacuole
a large vacuole that rests at the center of most plant cells and is filled with a solution that contains a high concentration of solutes
plastids
organelles that are surrounded by a double membrane and contain their own DNA
chloroplasts
use light energy to make carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water
thylakoids
A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy to chemical energy.
chlorophyll
main molecule that absorbs light and captures light energy for the cell