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the smallest unit that can carry out life processes

cell theory

has three essential parts that say all living organisms are composed of one or more cell, cells are the vasic units of structure and functiuon in an organism, cells come only from the reproduction of existing cells

plasma membrane

covers a cell's surface and acts as a barrier between the inside and th outside of a cell


region of the cell that is within the plasma membrane and that includes the fluid, the cytoskeleton, and all of the organelles except the nucleus is call the


part of the cytoplasm that includes molecules and small particles, such as robosomes, but not membrane-bound organelles is the


contains DNA and chromosomes, is a control center for cells


organisms that lack a membrane-bound nucleus and membrane-bound organelles


organisms made up of one or more cells that have a nucleus nad membrane-bound organelles


well-defined intracellular bodies that perform specific functions for the cell


group of similar cells and their products that carry outa specific function


groups of tissues that perform a particular job in an organism are called

organ system

group of organs that accomplish related tasks

phospholipid bilayer

the result of phospholipisd lining up so that their heads point outward toward the water and their tails poin inward away from water resulting in a double layer


structures in the nucleus made of DNA and protein

nuclear envelope

double membrane perforated with pores that control the flow of materials in and out of the nucleus


site where DNA is concentrated when it is in the process of making ribosomal RNA


organelles made of protein and RNA that direct protein syntheis in the cytoplasm


tiny organelles that transfer energy from organic molecule to ATP "powerhouse"

endoplasmic reticulum

system of membranous tubes and sacs that molecules move along from one part of the cell to another

Golgi apparatus

stack of membranes in the cell that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum


vesicles that contain digestive enzymes


tubes and filaments give shape to cell form the inside


hollow tubes made of protien


fine, threadlike proteins found in the cell's cytoskeleton


hair like. it assits in motion.


whiplike tails found in one-celled organisms to aid in movement


two tiny structures located in the cytoplasm near the nuclear envelope

cell wall

rigid layer that lies outside the cell's plasma membrane

central vacuole

a large vacuole that rests at the center of most plant cells and is filled with a solution that contains a high concentration of solutes


organelles that are surrounded by a double membrane and contain their own DNA


use light energy to make carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water


A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy to chemical energy.


main molecule that absorbs light and captures light energy for the cell

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