printing vocab!! WOO!
Terms in this set (107)
is the measure of image information for a given
the greater it is, the greater the
amount of image information (or detail) that can be reproduced
be it on screen or printed.
DPI (dots per inch)
Represents the amount ink and toner
dots used by printing devices to print text and/or graphics.
The more dots used in relation to image size, the crisper and more detailed the printed image will be.
PPI (pixels per inch)
Represents the resolution of digital
images and describes it in terms of pixels displayed. The more pixels in proportion to image size, the greater the amount of detail displays. Refers to display resolution
only, not image resolution.
LPI (lines per inch)
Represents the number of lines per
printed. Printing presses use many dots of ink to trick the eye into seeing tones of color and overlap dots to make
Can also be called linescreen or
SPI (samples per inch)
Represents scanner and digital image resolution. When a scanner captures an image, it samples portions of the image for its digital file. The more, the higher the resolution.
output resolution x size factor
depends on the number of dpi
not all are created equal
crucial to know where the final image will display before you start
final size of the produced image
larger the image, the more a set number of pixels have to cover causing a loss in quality
can range up to 10,000 dpi
line art scanning
simply scanning in black and white
1-bit or bitmap
images are composed of clean lines
scanner threshold values
adjusting how scanner views an image- either picking up lighter or darker values to pick up another version of the same image
eliminate by scanning at the optimal output for your device
determining file format
- file size
- what is intended use of image
- what platforms do you need to work with or use to access the image
- is image rasterized, object- oriented or both?
some of the images data is lost during compression and therefore can be less detailed
This scheme purges data during the process of compressing an image in order to conserve disk space.
no data is lost during compression so the image will look the same compressed as it did before
This compression scheme can possibly slow the opening and saving procedures on older machines.
Ex. BMP's RLE and
represent strictly black and white images and are 1-bit images
can use for screen and print
cyan, magenta, yellow, and black
standard commercial color printing model
also known as 4 color process
Process colours are normally used where continuous tones (as in photographs) are required, a wide range of colours are available using the primary colours Cyan, Magenta & Yellow
mixed with Black.
red, green, blue
colors a monitor uses to create colors with light
can use for desktop printer projects, but not commercial printing jobs
represents black and white images with up to 256 shades of gray
can use for both print or screen
limited version of RGB but with an adjusted bit depth so you can use only the colors in the images
common for GIF files
images are composed of dots or pixels (depending on if printed or on screen)
any images you've scanned, shot with a digital camera, or designed in an image editing program like photoshop
completely resolution dependent
composed of independent lines, shapes, and objects that are maintained by an underlying mathematical formula
can be created in illustrator, freehand, or corel draw
completely resolution independent and will resolve to the resolution of the output device
only eps is equipped to handle
mac vs windows
BMP is meant for windows
PICT is meant for mac
png file format
not meant for all browsers
exporting into a jpeg ensures that someone can't manipulate it
pdf file format
has become universally recognized and works with most systems
for posting and sending files
portable document format
embeds all the information crucial
to a single image, document, or publication all within a single file
only file format that can do this
benefits of PDFs
completely independent of computer operating system
comment highlight for easy edit/review
pdf can be optimized to compress
keeps files in one look - helpful for presentations
This encoding format, which stands for American
Standard Code for Information Interchange, is the simplest format of computer text.
It is legible in any computer platform, making it quite versatile.
This file format, also known as Windows Bitmap, is
the native format for Windows Paint and is supported by Windows and DOS applications. You can use a RLE compression scheme, which is lossless
This file format is that which is originally
produced by mid- to high-end digital cameras, serving basically as a digital film negative. Using this format enables you to interact with the images before they have been subject to any in-camera compression or color correction.
Each raw format is innate to the digital camera.
This file format is typically used for high-end
stands for continuous tone linework.
This format is not meant for web use.
This file format was developed as Quark's version of EPS and stands for Desktop Color Separation. This format actually creates a total of 5 files, one for each CMYK channels and one for previewing.
This file format, based on Adobe's PostScript printing language, can work for both raster and vector graphics.
Short for encapsulated PostScript, ideal for professional printing projects on PostScript printers.
This file format, originally pushed by Compuserve
online service, enables you compress photo files and quickly transfer them over computer modems.
use LZW compression, but unlike TIFF, can only have up to 256 colors.
can be saved so its image layers can be
made to move or blink, as a sort of animation.
This file format is the mainstay for graphic formats.
It uses a lossy compression scheme and you can moderate the amount of compression when saving
This format evaluates images in 8x8 pixel blocks and uses a color average for that block to assign similar values to the pixels in the block.
This form of encoding, which stands for Lempel-Ziv-Welch, shortens the computer code describing an image with equivalents and substitutes strings of data while doing so.
Since it doesn't touch any pixels during its compression process, it's completely lossless.
This file format was the native graphics format for
MAC OS9. It can handle object-oriented artwork as well as bitmapped images equally. It supports images of any size, resolution, or bit depth, even supporting 32-bit images.
This file format supports 16-million color images
without compression, making it well-suited for web use.
However, since browser support for this format can be varied and unreliable, you may want to consider other formats as well.
This computer language developed by
Adobe tells an electronic printer how to see an image it gets from the computer and translate that image onto printer paper.
EPS is a file format based on this
language and should only be used with compatible printers.
This file format is native to Adobe Photoshop and
This format saves all attributes, including layers, channels and file information.
Very few applications other than Adobe Photoshop and Photoshop elements can open this type format file without flattening all the layers.
This file format was developed by Aldus for Mac and is now the most widely-supported image format across PC and Mac platforms. It cannot handle object-oriented graphics.
Can be compressed using LZW, ZIP, and
This is a lossless compression scheme developed to compete with LZW. Though it's more commonly used for PDF compression, Adobe Photoshop enables you to use it as a TIFF compression option.
sometimes referred to as "surface printing," is a method commonly used for printing on packaging and other uneven surfaces.
the plates used in the printing process are often made of rubber or flexible plastic, allowing the
inked surface to conform to many kinds of substrates.
These inks generally have low viscosity, as is the case with the inks used in gravure.
This quality makes both processes quick-drying, which in turn results in relatively high speeds of production for both techniques
books show Lithographic inks printed by the Lithographic process our inks are
specially formulated for our application and whilst they are very close a small variance from Pantone may occur.
In critical instances, the request of a drawdown is advisable.
Allow for 3mm for any items of artwork that runs off the edge of the label.
Accounts for movement when the die cuts the stock.
It prevents the appearance of a white gap on the edge of your label if the cutter
does not line up perfectly.
minimum type size
recommended no less than 6pt font
especially when reversed from a solid background
We also recommend using bold fonts for reverse text and avoiding fonts with serifs which may fill in.
Where text overlaps more than one colour, add a 0.5 pt. stroke to keep text legible.
Avoid using less than 0.2 mm rules. Reverse rules less than 0.2 mm. may fill-in especially if there are large solid areas in the same color on the label. Outlines around text or objects should be no less than 0.2 mm thick.
For best results, keep any artwork that does not bleed spaced 1.5mm from the cutter.
With any press movement, spacing and borders will still look consistent on all edges of the label.
must be created at Bar Width Reduction of 20 microns and a minimum size of 80% , minimum bar height to be 14mm.
It is recommended that the "quiet area" be extended by 1mm both sides.
gradients and scans (AM screening)
should ideally not use less than 1% of a screen color
A smooth blend of color to no colour at all
cannot be achieved unless it is a gradient of a very light color, like yellow.
screen of color
Avoid in large background areas.
Colour inconsistencies can occur due to movement and
vibration on press. If possible, use a lighter solid PMS colour for large areas.
it is best practice to remove the black element of a colour from the CMY and replace it in the
For example removing the cyan from a tomato and the magenta from a lettuce leaf and replacing
in the black channel will aid printability.
Often this will result in the freeing up of a print station thus allowing for further control when printing (see separate sheet for examples).
Wherever two colours meet they must overlap slightly so that with any movement of the
material on press, there is no white gap between the colours.
art too small to trap
will overprint as shown in the bottom example, resulting in a colour change.
When designing artwork, please be aware of colour combinations which may give you
If reverse text or other objects occur within process or run from one spot colour into another, it should be outlined with black or some other colour that exists in the layout. If these different colours move even slightly it will distort the text or the object. (If it occurs within process, it may appear
The outline allows the edges of those colors behind the text to hide behind the outline. Thus, movement will not distort the text or the object.
We need at least a 0.38mm outline to do this. It is also best if any reverse text is a BOLD font.
Sharp steps seen within a vignette as one colour transitions to another colour.
black and white
Original art or proof in single colour (black image on a white background), as distinguished from
To adjust a file to compensate for the characteristics of a printing process. Any method used to
improve reproduction of the colour original (photograph, transparency, chrome, 35mm slide, digital photo, painting, etc)
An RGB or composite monitor which uses separate video signals of red, green, and blue; the three
primary additive colours.
An illustration in which the background gradually fades away until it blends into the unprinted substrate or a solid print.
Also called "fade."
The term is occasionally used to indicate a conventional halftone.
The process of exposing an original colour image through RGB filters to produce complementary
images which will be printed with CMYK inks.
The final plate making film negatives include masking (colour modification) for specific inks and substrates, as well as halftone screening to enable printing a uniform tone scale with proper gray balance from extreme highlights through mid tones and shadows to maximum solid colour. This can be done with a graphic arts camera, but today is accomplished almost exclusively and more effectively on scanners and image
setters as one of the final prepress production operations.
An image containing a range of colour tones from light to dark. Appear as pixels on a colour
monitor or silver pigment particles on a photograph. Must be converted to halftone dots in order to be printed.
A picture file; conveying the concept that halftone screening can be performed on this file upon output, as when screening CTs at a specific size and screen ruling on an image setter.
created by either scanning a picture into the system or by generating a CT image internally.
Data which indicates the film negative halftone dot areas needed to compensate for normal dot
gain throughout the entire tone scale during the printing process. This data is specific to particular printing materials and process conditions.
One of the four ink colours used in four-colour process printing. A blue-green colour which primarily absorbs red light. Also commonly called process blue.
Changing the size of a file in a non-proportional manner (anamorphic scaling).
A multiplier which compensates for normal flexo image shrinkage with rubber plates and image
stretch when flexo plates are made flat and mounted around a cylinder for printing.
The dot size growth from the film to a printed dot. This causes darker tones or unwanted colours. It
generally is more pronounced in the mid-tones and shadow areas. It is a physical and/or optical measurement and theoretical calculation of the apparent increase in dot area from one medium to another.
Normally expressed as the difference between a mid-tone (nominal 50%) dot area on a film negative and the printed dot area; for example, a
50% film dot area which prints as a 78% dot has a 28% dot gain. Dot gain (and loss) are normal and must be controlled throughout the prepress and printing process.
dot gain curve
Graphic illustration of dot gain data throughout the entire highlight (non image) to extreme
shadow (solid image) tone scale.
Application of two layers of ink to achieve greater opacity or more intense colour.
Digitally generated shadow used in cases where shadow from photograph is inadequate or
nonexisting. Generally created using only the black channel but can be created in 4-colour as well.
A special effect created by printing a black & white photograph with black and a PMS colour ink. This effect
can also be accomplished using black and multiple PMS colours.
A complete set of characters in one design, size, and style. In traditional typography usage, font may be restricted to a particular size and style or may comprise multiple sizes, or multiple sizes and styles, of a typeface design.
Indicates "For Position Only". This image will be replaced in production (usually on the film image setter) with a high-resolution image.
The total range of colours that can be displayed.
gray component replacement
System to reduce overprinted halftone dot sizes of CMY overprint areas and increase the appropriate black halftone dot sizes to achieve a neutral gray with less ink and improved printing conditions.
The proper combination of cyan, magenta, and yellow ink dot area, hue/density, trap, transparency,
and register on a specific substrate under normal printing conditions which reproduce as a neutral gray throughout the entire tone scale.
pictorial which has been converted from a continuous tone original image, such as a photograph, into dots of appropriate size which, when printed, give the visual illusion closely resembling the original over a gradation range from highlight to shadow.
An area of approximately equal sized halftone dots producing a uniform optical density.
The lightest or whitest parts in a photograph represented in a halftone reproduction by the smallest dots or no dots.
Taking a digital scan and composing, outlining, retouching or ghosting it. Drop shadows may be added to outlined elements. Vignettes may be generated to reduce the possibility of banding.
Modifying the normal space between letters during typesetting; can be plus or minus letter spacing in computerized typesetting. Traditionally this involved reducing space between only selected characters, such as the L and Y in ONLY, to be more readable or pleasing to the eye; see letter spacing.
Adding space between characters and spaces during typesetting; also known as "tracking" in some typesetting software; see kerning.
One of the four ink colours used in four-colour process printing. A bluish-red colour which primarily absorbs green light but also absorbs an excessive amount of blue. Also commonly called process red.
An optical interference pattern caused when two screened images are superimposed at inappropriate angles.
A flexo anilox roll also can cause
A line between two points. Vectors are created and displayed on the screen with drawing software. Vector drawings can be processed as a series of points and connections which are compact for a computer to store and
Information that comes from a computer as a result of its processing.
Picture element, or the smallest unit (cell, dot, square) on a colour monitor display screen grid that can be displayed, stored, or addressed. A picture is typically composed of a rectangular array of pixels.
A ratio of the difference between the printed solid area density and a printed shadow tint area
(normally 75% as measured on the plate making film negative) to the density of the solid, expressed as a percentage.
This indicates the printing system's capability to hold image detail in the upper tone region. Most desirable (highest) print contrast occurs with the simultaneous highest solid print density and the lowest dot gain.
colour reproduction made by overprinting halftone separations using the four process colours; process yellow, magenta, cyan, and black. Hue may be modified to meet specific needs. SWOP (Specifications Web
Offset Publications) is becoming the quasi printing industry standard.
Areas free of printing that precede the leftmost bar and follow the rightmost bar in a bar code symbol.
raster image processing
A device or program that translates information in page description language to the
pattern of dots to be delivered by the output unit of the system.
Digitally adding, removing or recreating any element in a photograph.
To change the tonal orientation of an image, making the darker elements lighter and the lighter darker.
Note that to physically reverse the spatial orientation of an image is known as "flopping" the image.
reverse knock out
The process of dropping an image out of the background colour so type, for example, will
appear white with a colour surround.
Printing wrong reading on the underside of transparent film which, when laminated to another
substrate with the ink in the middle of the "sandwich" causes the image to become right-reading when viewed through the sheet it was printed upon.
The desirable circular patterns created when four-colour process colours are printed in register.
Without serifs, which are the fine lines that finish off the main strokes of a letter.
Converting camera-ready artwork, reflective prints and transparencies into digital files. For critical colour jobs, colour corrections are executed during and/or after scanning. Custom setups are used for creating special effects such as duotones and touch plates.
The number of lines to the inch in the screen ruling. They range from a COARSE ruling of 65 to
FINE at 300 lines. The finer the screen, the sharper the detail in reproduction. Newspapers produce halftones in 55 to 85 line screen.
Quality magazines may have up to 300 line screen. There are 90,000 dots/square inch in a four-colour
printed area using a 150 line screen.
The practice of spreading the adjacent (butted) images printing in subordinate colours around
white type or along a white line, permitting the dominant (usually darker) colour image to define the edge. This allows normal register tolerances to exist without degrading the design. It is the .18mm overlap of adjacent colour objects to compensate for misregistration and paper stretch during the printing process. As a general rule, the lighter
object is spread into the darker.
Shortened. Decreasing the height of the bars in a UPC bar code symbol below the normal specification which decreases the symbol's ability to read omnidirectionally and should be avoided.
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