44 terms

APush Ch. 9 - Market Rev/Social Changes (1815-1840)

Alexis de Tocqueville
one of two Frenchmen who came to the US to learn more about the American republic; wrote "Democracy in America", analyzing American character (racism, social tensions, etc.)
mountain men, fur
the first people to settle in the 'real west' in 1820; traded _____
simple-minded, yodels
how the East saw Western society
backwoods, hard labor, rugged, tough men
the character of the west (in terms of men and women)
divided between men and women
how labor was managed in the West
honest democracy
how the West saw themselves (politically)
Five Civilized Tribes
an alliance of 5 civilized/Americanized Indian tribes, incl. the Cherokees and Choctaws; now a whitewashed minority
Christianity, laws, newspaper, race mixing
4 (white) aspects of the Five Civilized Tribes
Andrew Jackson
president during the 1820s; raised on the frontier, supported the South and disliked Indians; thought Indians should be subordinate to the states they lived in
Indian Removal Act
passed by Jackson in 1830, allowing him to exchange western land for (worse) eastern lands / negotiate treaties to take lands; unfair deals
Worcester v Georgia
court case in which the Cherokee thought they were an independent republic and had rights to their land; Georgia tries to take their lands
Trail of Tears
a path which most Indians were forced to take on foot, 800+ miles west, to settle in other lands and make room for the whites (mainly Cherokees)
market economy
the idea of a money, not trade, based economy; includes consumerism (ie the growth of cash crops)
accomodate farmers, less land, lowered price
how the federal land policy changed over time (3)
who the Federalists originally sold land to because they were reluctant to give it away
easy credit, loose policies, overspeculation, too many loans
causes of the Panic of 1819 (4)
hard money politics, hatred of federal government
effects of the Panic of 1819 (2)
costly, weak transport system, want for more markets
factors leading to the transportation revolution (3)
roads/turnpikes, canals/steamboats, railroads
evolution of transportation over time
Gibbons v Ogden
Supreme Court case in which New York wanted a monopoly on the steamboat system, meaning they could set the prices; New York loses; Sup. Ct. uses a loose interpretation
support of competition for capitalism
significance of the Gibbons v. Ogden decision
Erie Canal
a canal built by New York, connecting the Hudson River and Lake Erie; became an indispensable (in terms of trade, communication)
the growth of towns and cities
competition with world powers, cotton gin, tariffs, Transportation Revolution, unskilled workers
causes of Industrialization (5)
factories, unequal distribution of wealth
effects of Industrialization (2)
Eli Whitney
first to use unskilled workers to make interchangable parts
Waltham and Lowell Textile Mills
the first factories to produce a complete product; attracted young women (to educate males) with higher wages; bad conditions to cut costs; harsh working schedule
outwork, full-scale industry
another name for the cottage industry (entrepreneurs ship goods to families to complete; showed that industrialization in America wasn't ___________
middle-class workers who declined due to unskilled workers and factories; had to become businessmen to become really successful
large cities
where inequality was rampant
the poor who deserved a better life
the poor who didn't try to improve their conditions (ie drunkards)
middling class
the new name for (white) professionals, doctors, entrepreneurs, physicians, small merchants, and manufacturers
most of the wealthy / upper classes ______ wealth
the wealthy (benefitted/didn't benefit) from industrialization
the idea that people moved around for new work (ie farmers working land and moving west)
the inability to defend for onesself
Irish, Catholic
the poorest immigrants + religion
not many
there were (many/not many) Americans who could be described as self-made, going from rags to riches
no suffrage, segregation
conditions for free blacks
African Methodist Episcopal Church, Richard Allen
the first black-run Protestant denomination + its founder; created as a response to discrimination
separate spheres
the doctrine that men were superior in making money and governing, and women were superior in moral influence in the home
vertical allegiance
allegiance where authroity flows from the top down; subordinates identify with their superiors rather than their equals (ie a patriarchal family)
horizontal allegiance
allegiance where groups with common traits (working condition, social class, gender) identified with one another