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Alexis de Tocqueville

one of two Frenchmen who came to the US to learn more about the American republic; wrote "Democracy in America", analyzing American character (racism, social tensions, etc.)

mountain men, fur

the first people to settle in the 'real west' in 1820; traded _____

simple-minded, yodels

how the East saw Western society

backwoods, hard labor, rugged, tough men

the character of the west (in terms of men and women)

divided between men and women

how labor was managed in the West

honest democracy

how the West saw themselves (politically)

Five Civilized Tribes

an alliance of 5 civilized/Americanized Indian tribes, incl. the Cherokees and Choctaws; now a whitewashed minority

Christianity, laws, newspaper, race mixing

4 (white) aspects of the Five Civilized Tribes

Andrew Jackson

president during the 1820s; raised on the frontier, supported the South and disliked Indians; thought Indians should be subordinate to the states they lived in

Indian Removal Act

passed by Jackson in 1830, allowing him to exchange western land for (worse) eastern lands / negotiate treaties to take lands; unfair deals

Worcester v Georgia

court case in which the Cherokee thought they were an independent republic and had rights to their land; Georgia tries to take their lands

Trail of Tears

a path which most Indians were forced to take on foot, 800+ miles west, to settle in other lands and make room for the whites (mainly Cherokees)

market economy

the idea of a money, not trade, based economy; includes consumerism (ie the growth of cash crops)

accomodate farmers, less land, lowered price

how the federal land policy changed over time (3)


who the Federalists originally sold land to because they were reluctant to give it away

easy credit, loose policies, overspeculation, too many loans

causes of the Panic of 1819 (4)

hard money politics, hatred of federal government

effects of the Panic of 1819 (2)

costly, weak transport system, want for more markets

factors leading to the transportation revolution (3)

roads/turnpikes, canals/steamboats, railroads

evolution of transportation over time

Gibbons v Ogden

Supreme Court case in which New York wanted a monopoly on the steamboat system, meaning they could set the prices; New York loses; Sup. Ct. uses a loose interpretation

support of competition for capitalism

significance of the Gibbons v. Ogden decision

Erie Canal

a canal built by New York, connecting the Hudson River and Lake Erie; became an indispensable (in terms of trade, communication)


the growth of towns and cities

competition with world powers, cotton gin, tariffs, Transportation Revolution, unskilled workers

causes of Industrialization (5)

factories, unequal distribution of wealth

effects of Industrialization (2)

Eli Whitney

first to use unskilled workers to make interchangable parts

Waltham and Lowell Textile Mills

the first factories to produce a complete product; attracted young women (to educate males) with higher wages; bad conditions to cut costs; harsh working schedule

outwork, full-scale industry

another name for the cottage industry (entrepreneurs ship goods to families to complete; showed that industrialization in America wasn't ___________


middle-class workers who declined due to unskilled workers and factories; had to become businessmen to become really successful

large cities

where inequality was rampant


the poor who deserved a better life


the poor who didn't try to improve their conditions (ie drunkards)

middling class

the new name for (white) professionals, doctors, entrepreneurs, physicians, small merchants, and manufacturers


most of the wealthy / upper classes ______ wealth


the wealthy (benefitted/didn't benefit) from industrialization


the idea that people moved around for new work (ie farmers working land and moving west)


the inability to defend for onesself

Irish, Catholic

the poorest immigrants + religion

not many

there were (many/not many) Americans who could be described as self-made, going from rags to riches

no suffrage, segregation

conditions for free blacks

African Methodist Episcopal Church, Richard Allen

the first black-run Protestant denomination + its founder; created as a response to discrimination

separate spheres

the doctrine that men were superior in making money and governing, and women were superior in moral influence in the home

vertical allegiance

allegiance where authroity flows from the top down; subordinates identify with their superiors rather than their equals (ie a patriarchal family)

horizontal allegiance

allegiance where groups with common traits (working condition, social class, gender) identified with one another

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